Hornby Hornby Hornby 1 1200 Scale Minic Model Ship M715 - RMS Canberra f539fd

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Hornby Hornby Hornby 1 1200 Scale Minic Model Ship M715 - RMS Canberra f539fd
CITROEN 500 Kg FROMAGE JURAGRUYERE COMTE ELIGOR 1007 1 43,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals TALBOT Sunbeam Lotus Rallye Gr.2 Asturias Spain Zanini IXO Altaya 1 43,.1 87 , Herpa Hochtief 146920 MB SK 94 mit 8-achs Tieflader,.MATCHBOX 1-75 MOKO LESNEY Nr. 38 B VAUXHALL VICTOR ESTATE CAR 1963 67mm blackP,.1 192 WWII FLETCHER CLASS DESTROYER 1 192,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Johnny WHITE Lightning 1970 Dodge Charger 70 Mopar Or No Car 64 Scale,.HERPA herpa 1 160 Mercedes Benz Atego HLF 20 999,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.MAISTO 2012 MERCEDES SL 63 AMG RED 1 18 DIECAST CAR 36199,.PORTAAVIONES GRAF ZEPPELIN - Trumpeter 06709,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 18 MAISTO SPECIAL EDITION 1996 DODGE VIPER GTS RED with WHITE STRIPES wd,.Transformers 1977 Chevy Camaro Bumblebee 1 24 99383 Series Hollywood Rides JADA,.1 87 VW Sharan II 2010 Emergency Doctor - Volkswagen Dealer Edition Oem - Herpa, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Corgi 1 76 Scale Diecast Model D599 - AEC Bus R7B Hove Station,.DELAGE D8 LETOURNEUR & MARCHAND 1939 IXO MUS010 1 43,.CIJ PEUGEOT D4A CYCLE PEUGEOT,.TRIANG MINIC SHIP M732 VARICELLA AS ESSO TANKER CODE 3 ESSO TANKS,.

Scania 110 Super (1953) 1 43 Ixo TR014,.1970 MUSTANG BOSS 429 RED 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY MOTORMAX 73154,.Dacia Duster 2018 blue 1 43 Norev 509004 neu & OVP,.Siku Postcar (1936) - 150 1936 Dhl Sprinter Scale Mercedes Van New Model,.GATE WILLY'S ARMY JEEP BEETLE BAILEY SCALA 1 32 NO BOX MC42869,.

FORD Fiesta WRC Rallye Monte Carlo 2012 Tänak Michelin S-Preis IXO 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Splendida Bburago Ferrari rossa F50 Hard Top 1995 scala 1 18 nuova con scatola,.FERRARI 275 GTB 4 - IGRA N. 1 CCCP - CZECHOSLOVAKIA - RARE VINTAGE TOYS,.RIETZE 71614 - H0 1 87 - MB Atego DLK L-AS FW Gerlingen - NEU in OVP,Nave a 3 alberi maestro modellino collezione esposizione vascello in legno,.Greenlight 1 64 Scale 44722 - Unrestored 1968 Ford Mustang Steve McQueen,.

VW Beetle Congreenible Cabriolet 1302 1 24 Scale Welly Diecast Detailed Model,.MOTOCROSS YAMAHA 1 12 57713,.Albatros 1 1250 DK. Patroler LAUGE KOCH Alk 602B Neu OVP,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Fiat Panda 45 1980 Bianco 1 43 - Brumm R387-04 Modellino Auto Diecast,.

MODELLISMO NAVE BARCA FIFIE IMBARCAZIONE DA PESCA STATICO AMATI,. We agree in part.

Dinky Collection DY-22 Citroen 15 CV 1952 black 1 43 Matchbox,.CADILLAC Queen Elizabeth II 1956 Cabriolet black offen NEU NEW Norev 1 43,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Dinky Toys n° 24A - Chrysler New Yorker 1955 - Meccano France,.BK51-0,5x Wiking H0 1 87 PKW Rolls Royce 3800 + 837, sehr gut+1x OVP,.Revell Renwal 1 500 USS King Model Kit US Navy Destroyer,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Fiat Panda 45S Furgonetta Moretti 1982 SIP Serie Capinkllo 1 43 BRUMM R506-UPD18,.MOTORMAX 73110 1960 CHEVROLET IMPALA CONgreenIBLE 1 18 DIECAST MODEL LIGHT blueE,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Corgi 1 50 Scale 30202 - Thames Trader Dropside Lorry - Stobart,; 1 1250 Schwerer Kreuzer Northampton von Neptun (1335a),; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

SUBARU Impreza WRC Rallye 2004 Wales GB Solberg Winner Vitesse 1 43,.PROJECT 955 BOREI-YURI DOLGORUKY SSBN RUSSIAN NAVY HOBBY BOSS 1 350 PLASTIC KIT,O599-0,5WIKING H0 Modell Pritschensattelzug International Loadstar- NEUAUFLAGE,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Herpa Mercedes-Benz Vito + trailer 1 87 Feuerwehr (JS),.

Hot Wheels Fire Eater 1976 Made in Hong Kong,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.HOT WHEELS 2009 NEW MODELS 2009 NISSAN GT-R 42 RED,.Wiking 075001+074901 STRASSENBAHN TREIBWAGEN & ANHÄNGER,.HACHETTE CAMIONS BERLIET 1 43 N° 25 Le TBO 15 M3 Pousseur de Convoi Exceptionnel,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Provence Moulding Kit Assembled SB 1 43 - R&s Oldsmobile Le Mans 1998,; Solido SB 1 43 - Peugeot 104 ZS Rally d'Antibes No.59,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, MINICHAMPS PORSCHE CAYENNE TURBO 2002 WAP C20 1 43,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Corgi 1 43 Scale Diecast 96904 - Bedford CA Van - RAC,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

MAISTO 2007 07 LAMBORGHINI MURCIELAGO LP640 1 18 WHITE,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Various 12cm Hong Kong - Rolls Royce Size Pencils,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

CORGI BRITISH RAIL FODEN S21 PLATFORM TRAILER 1 50 SCALE No 13903 LTD EDITION,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.CITROEN TYPE HZ 1963 SERVICE CIBIE MODEL VAN 1 43RD SIZE VERSION PKD R0154X{ },.VW COCCINELLE Kdf 1938 1er COCCINELLE VITESSE VCC99015 1 43,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.AWM LKW Scania R Topl. Aerop Ga-KSZ DFDS 74928,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.VW Volkswagen Scirocco III Coupe Weiss Ab Modell 2008 Ab Facelift 2014 1 43 No..,.

6 ASSORTED 1 76 OXFORD DIECAST ROAD VEHICLES 5Z,.Maisto Marvel Spider-Man Chevrolet SSR Concept - New NIB RARE Scale 1 25,.2010 Aston Martin V12 Vantage Red,.Citroën C4 WRC Rally du Var 2009 Norev item 155431 scale 1 43,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Corgi 1 43 Scale Diecast Model Van C957 1 - Morris Minor Van - Royal Mail,.

SIKU 1893 GELENKBUS ARTICULATED BUS - RED 1 87- EXCELLENT CONDITION IN BOX,.CORAZZATA YAMATO DE AGOSTINI 1 250 JAPANESE WWII MODEL KIT LEGNO E METALLO,.Altaya Models 1 43 Scale Diecast 003 - 1971 Lancia Berlina - Maroon,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, VITESSE 1 43 25350 JAGUAR XKR ASPEN,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.PORSCHE CAYENNE 2014 RED Minichamps 940063200,.VANGUARDS Morris Oxford Series V1 Deep pink RHD UK VA05408 ltd ed,.NIKO MODEL US Landing Craft LST 542 - 1 700 resin kit,.EFE 1 76 Scale - 13001 Atkinson car transporter TSL,.DeAgostini Atlas Editions Legendary Warships - ADMIRAL SCHEER,.

Maisto 531281M 1 24 Scale Audi R8 Model Car, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Udaloy Class Admiral Panteleyev 1 350 Plastic Model Kit TRUMPETER,.Pirate Ship Kit Revell 1 72 RV05605 Model,. The PartridgeKIT DI MONTAGGIO COREL AMPHION - SM20 Yacht armato svedese del secolo XVIII,.Herpa 307918 MAN TGS M Baukipper 3 Achsen mit goldhofer TU 3 1 87 Neu,.KIT MOUNTING F1 WARSTEINER ARROWS A3 MASS PATRESE 1980 1 43,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, MAISTO 1 18 SPECIAL EDITION - 1965 CHEVROLET CORVETTE orange 31640OR, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Citroen C4 WRC - Sebastien Loeb Daniel Elena - Rallye Monte Carlo 2008 1 43,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO LP 560-4 1 24 Car Metal Model Die Cast Miniature bluee,.Lamborghini Diablo Sv 1 64 Mini Car Collection Kyosho,PartridgeAltaya 1 43 Scale AL333 - 2 CV Citroen Le Cabriolet 4 Saisons,.Mały Modelarz nr 1 - jednostki floty desantowej UNIKAT NUMER 1 z 1957 r. ,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Premium X 1 43 Diecast 1982 Ford Del Rey Ouro Version Coupe, Dark Grey PRD238, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Solaris Urbino U 12 Vestische Straßenbahn 2321 3-türig - VK Sondermodell,; Minichamps 1 43 Audi R8 Le Mans 2001,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Constructo 80837. Model boat wood. Schooner Enterprise. 1 51+Tool, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 1 76 EFE 99918 LONDON TRANSPORT GIFT SET 1 (U29), (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge2019 Matchbox 70 Chevy El Camino Lot of 12,.

Ford Model T Touring 1925 Red 1 24 Model MOTORMAX,.Ixo Presse 1 43 - Lot de 3 Peugeot 504 - Peugeot 203 - Citroen 2CV, Clarke's negligent act.Onyx 1 43 Scale - XCL024 PORSCHE 911 GT3 CUP RALF KELLENERS,.DESTRUCTOR DE GRASSE 1 400 - Heller 81039,.Subaru WRX Sti White - Fast & Furious Series - Jada Toys - 1 24 - JA98296WH,.

OPEL VECTRA GTS SCHUCO 1 43,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 24 Scale Jaguar XKR-S White Diecast Car Model Die Cast Cars Models Miniature,28Pcs 22” Tractor Trailer Dinosaur Carrier w Dinosaurs & Other Accessories,. In Noska,Brekina13712 Mercedes-Benz Trac mit Hänger Hörster in red-grey 1 87 NEU,.Fiat 600 Multipla Olio Fiat 1956 1 43 2001 BRUMM,.Corgi 1 43 Scale Model Van 96744 - Morris Minor Saloon Police - Panda,.Art Model 1 43 Ferrari 166 MM Spyder Stradale white Diecast, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.CITROEN TYPE HZ PUBLICITAIRE SONORISE VAN 1954 1 43RD SCALE ISSUE K8967Q ,.D. Koel Pilot Ship Model Hansa S53 1 1250 shp402 Å,.Fiat 131 Abarth Winner Monte Carlo 1980 Rohrl Geistdorfer Plastic Kit 1 24,.Minichamps VW Käfer 1200 Brezel Fenster Paul’s Model Art 1 43 grey,. Id., p 923.

King Luise M524 Ship Model 1 1250 Å,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, 1 87 Busch Espewe IFA L60 ETK green mit Dachspoiler 95507,Dinky 105 Triumph TR2 Sports Car In Grey - Nice Vintage Original Model 1950s,.Iso Rivolta 3000 GT Neo 87290 87291 87292 87293 zur Auswahl Neu in OVP 1 87,.RARE VINTAGE 80'S HOVER CRAFT PLASTIC SHIP BOAT 30cm APERGIS GREECE GREEK NEW ,.Brekina MB LS 1620 Kühl-KSZ Jamon Montero (ARG) 81113,.HMS Fearless L10 Guerre des Malouines 1 700,.TRUMPETER 1 200 PORTAEREI USS YORKTOWN CV-5 SCATOLA DI MONTAGGIO,.Faller 163307 Car System Motor ø 6 mm lang Modul 0,1,. The parties Vintage 1970s Matchbox Superfast No 64 Slingshot Mint In Box,.

Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 911 Carrera GTS 2011 Speedyellow 410060120 108805,.Dinky DY7 1959 CADILLAC Coupe De Ville Variations New Mint Boxed,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, MATCHBOX SEA KINGS WATER LINE MODEL No.K-308 MISSILE DESTROYER,; Lamborghini Aventador 2012 1 43 Ixo MOC155, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

NEW − 1969 Skoda 1100 MBX − Turquoise light − ABREX diecast 1 43,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Land Rover 109 Military, green, 1980, Hongwell 1 43 in Vitrine,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Herpa 304825 - 1 87 Daf 105 XF Sc Stöffelliner-Sattelzug - Brunner - Neu,.Vintage 1965 Topper Toys Sea Patrol Ship Boat Play Set PT Boat Submarine MIB,.Neo Saab 95 - green - 1961 - 1 87,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,SIKU GIFT SET POLICE SU6302,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Model Box ref 8414 AC Shelby Cobra Sebring 1963 43 made in neuf mint,.SUPER CHAMPION FERRARI 512M - FRANCOURCHAMPS - 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION,.Neptun 1204 Japanese Battleship Fuso 1943 1 1250 Scale Model Ship,.Renault R5 Turbo blue 1. Generation 1972-1985 1 43 Solido Modell Auto mit oder..,.1 24 1967 FORD Mustang GT Do Old Vintage Diecast Model Car Toy Xmas Gifts,. The Scottsdale1957 FORD RANCHERO COCA-COLA PROMOTION AD CAR 1 64 SCALE DIORAMA DIECAST E,Herpa 155014 MB Actros L08 Hängerzug C. Balke , Fertigmodell in H0, NEU & OVP,.763H Vintage Solido 188 Opel Manta 1900 SR silveré 1 43,. Id.,Majorette Scania Avec Remorque Et Son Voilier,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, RK-Modelle® 80220 Robur 611 Predotyp Pritsche Plane blue grey yellow Maßstab 1 87,; OPEL CALIBRA V6 N°6 DTM 1993 ROSBERG MINICHAMPS 1 43,HOT WHEELS '59 CADDY Real Riders Series Die-Cast 4 MOC COMPLETE 1994,.1 32 Set of 2 Diecast models 1933 Cadillac Towncar & Fleetwood,. The ScottsdaleAtlas submarines 1 350 Type IA U-Boat German Navy, U-26, Germany, 1940 7169-115,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, MAISTO 36138 2006 06 DODGE CHALLENGER CONCEPT HEMI 1 18 DIECAST blueE,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Matchbox Appx 1 43 Scale YPC04-M - 1912 Ford Model T - Coca-Cola,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Voiture miniature Renault Alpine A610 fabricant GTS 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, EFE 1 76 20301 BRISTOL VR SERIES II EAST YORKSHIRE 79B CIRCULAR,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, MATCHBOX Models of Yesteryear 1947 Citroen Type H Van MARTELL Original Box,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Antique PILOT SARATOGA With 12 Airplanes Waterline Ship Model (12), (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, BUB Exklusive Set 200 Km durch Deutschland 2006 Top + OVP, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, AWM LKW DAF XF 106 SC Aerop. Swapbody-SZ Intertank 53641,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeCOREL SM38 BARCA Modello H.M.S. RESOLUTION imbarcazione Nave CUTTER inglese 1 50,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Schuco 452634100 1 87 Mercedes Benz O321 Bus German post Ho 1 87 New,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheKenworth T2000 Cab Unit - bluee Super Haulier Welly 32210B 1 32 Scale,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Renault Megane Coupe Typ M Facelift 2006-09 red red metallic 1 43,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Solido 1 43 - Simca 1308 Taxi N°60,COLLECTION CAMPING CAR LE COMMER MAIDSTONE N°18,.Brumm 1 43 Scale Metal Model - R30 FIAT 508 C BERLINA 1100 HP32 1937-39,.Navis 1 1250 Prinz Adalbert 1.16 Metall Gebraucht sehr guter Zustand,. The HuygheTorpedo Boat T19 1944 Neptun 1068B Ship Model 1 1250 shpz51 Å,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1 43 Vitesse Lancia Stratos Roadcar red 1974 AV080A,.

Brekina Ikarus 255 Reisebus white pastellblue 59651,.MODELLISMO NAVALE COREL COURONNE - SM17 Vascello di linea francese del 1636,.

Ives Blech Aufziehbare Boot 1910s USA Uhrwerk Spielzeug Bing,.Hornby Minic Ships 1 1200 Scale M741 - HMS Vanguard Battleship,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Wiking Eisenbahn-Fähre FYN , altwhite, Schornsteine blacke Kappe (Nr.9NH23),.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1957 CHEVROLET BEL AIR CONVT. blueE 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY MOTORMAX 73175,.DECAL 1 24 AUDI QUATTRO MALCOLM WILSON RAC RALLY 1982 10th (09),.

For example, in Partridge,Kingfisher Icebreaker Ship Model Albatros K Model 27 1 1250 shp435 Å,. In Jorgensen, supra,[FFSMC Productions] 1 8 Logos brake Ferrari, Brembo and Ferrari Ceramic,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Vitesse Opel Ascona 400 A. Kulläng 1 43 43353,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Hot Wheels Super van club car Mint card USA only.,. That is the same situation in this case.Replicagri REPLI140R CASSONETTO red CON ATTACCO IDRAULICO A TRE PUNTI 1 32 Mo,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Corgi 1 36 Scale Model Car 04406 - Mini 1996 Monte Carlo - Tony Dron,. Detroit Edison, supra.

EFE 1 76 Scale 99640 Leyland PD2 Todmorden L.M.S,.1 43 IXO Lotus Elite Le Mans 1959,.Schabak 1065 1 43 VW Transporter T3 Bus DRK Deutsche redes Kreuz TOP OVP,.

Ferrari 512BB Le Mans (1979) Pozzi-jms Team 43 2006 K002 BRUMM,.