Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
IST013 GAZ VOLGA WOLGA M21 Sedan Limousine 1956 - 1 43 - IST IXO,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Norev 1 43 - Boite Vide Originale Maserati Sport 200 SI,.HOT WHEELS LEGENDS '49 MERC LEAD SLED 2 CAR SET,.PORSCHE 911 TARGA 993 green blue Metallic MINICHAMPS 1 43 Boitage porsche,.Matchbox Superfast No 35 Merryweather Fire Engine Light Red 5 Arch Wheels VNMIB,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.2013 Hot Wheels Star Trek Cars Complete Set Mattel Toys,.CORGI 267 BATMOBILE (1970s) + DINKY FAB 1 (1960s 70s) 100,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Fire Brigade Models Gloucestershire Fire And Rescue Service Damage Control Unit,.Vintage Tonka Volkswagen Beetle Twinkle Toes orange Bug,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 43 Minichamps Opel Diplomat V8 Coupe 1965 silver 400 048020,.DV8663 SCHUCO MERCEDES-BENZ L322 SINALCO REF 03262,.NOREV 1 18 RENAULT 16 FIREMAN DIE-CAST RED 185126RD, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 43 RW MODELL (Germany) Mercedes Kettenwagen 1905,.CHEVROLET CORVETTE C5R LE MANS 2002 Minichamps yellow 1 43,.OPEL CALIBRA 2.0i 1990 MAGMA red 1 43 MINICHAMPS 400045720 NEU,.Maisto G Ridez 93' Ford Mustang Cobra blueE 1 64 Fox Body G Ridez Die Cast 5.0,.

Hot Wheels Camaro Fifty 1967-2017 Exclusive 8 Car Set,.Porsche 911 GT3 RS1000 km SPA 2004 400046980 1 43 Minichamps,.BMW M3 E30 1 43 DTM MINICHAMPS Bastos Soper-Martin-Danner in OVP ,.Corgi 1 43 Scale Diecast D16 1 - Rallying With Ford 3 Piece Set,.MERCEDES-BENZ 190 SL Cabriolet 1955 Grey 1 43 MINICHAMPS 430 033156,.

Siku Tempo-Matador Bus v220 excellent état rare,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Schuco - 1075 - Grand Prix Racer Montagekasten, Farbe green, Nr. 4 - OVP,.2006 Chevrolet Camaro Concept 1 18 Scale Diecast Car Jada,.PORSCHE 911 934 Turbo DRM Nürburgring 1976 GT Sindel PMA Minichamps 1 43,Lledo Rupert Diecast Vans Rupert The Bear Van Collection All Boxed,.MERCEDES SLR McLAREN SLR TROPHY SPARK 1 43,.

Motormodell Motor Dodge Top Fuel 426 Hemi Dragster 1 6 Liberty classic,.Volkswagen Dannenhauer Und Stauss Cabriolet 1954 BoS Models 1 43 BOS43025 Model,.CORGI WALLS ICE CREAM VAN ON FORD THAMES UNBOXED,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

MINICHAMPS Mercedes AMG Petronas F1 MC-410140406,.

Kit Starter 1 43 - FERRARI 333 SP N°17 LE MANS 1996,. We agree in part.

Kyosho 1 64 Mercedes-Benz G55 G class AMG slopes White,.RUSSIAN BM-21 GRAD M.R.L TRUMPETER 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.CORGI TOYS JAGUAR XJS H.E SUPERCAT OVP MINT NOS,.1 18 scale 1970 Chevy Nova SS Coupe (bluee) Special Edition Maisto Diecast,.1 18 Sun Star Chevrolet Nova 1963 Coupe red NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; OPEL KAPITEIN POLIZEI Schuco 1 43 IN BOX,.Ferrari 250 Spyder California 43 Model 0125 ART-MODEL,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Brumm R320 COOPER T53 61 GP GERMANIA 1 43,; MATCHBOX 1-75 MOKO LESNEY Nr. 34 A VOLKSWAGEN 1957 56mm MetallR,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Herpa 926744 Scania R'13 TL Gardinenplanen-Sattelzug Philipp Seidler 1 87,.PremiumX PRD519 NISSAN GT-R LM NISMO N.23 M.CITY EDITION 2015 1 43 Modellino,New 2008 Audi RS4 Congreenible Yellow 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Maisto 31147y,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.HERPA 1 500 - 512398 BOEING 747-200F 3 SPEED SERVICE NORTHWEST AIRLINES,.

1 43 Minichamps Bentley R type continental 1954,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Porsche Cayenne GTS Typ 9PA 2007-10 red red 1 43 Minichamps,.MAJORETTE N° 209 - DODGE CAMPING CAR RED - NEUF EN BOITE - NEW IN SHOWBOX 1973,.UNIVERSAL 1 43 RENAULT CLIO SUPER 1600 N°15 RALLYE ALSACE JORDAN DELEBECQUE,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Chgold Q zero Subaru Sambar porter specification,; FDS Models 1 43 scale white metal - 19APR2 Porsche 908 03 1971 built kit,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Sw2076, Wiking MB NG 1017 Koffer ernst Maier GmbH & Ladenbau+Metallbau 1 87 Werb,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


Vintage 1972 Matchbox Superfast No.9 AMX Javelin bluee with Opening Doors,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Audi A2 in pinien green green green green metallic, Minichamps in 1 43 DEALER ,


This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Pegaso Comet Fagor Kofferauflieger BoS Models 1 87 BOS87260S,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Audi A4 DTM No 15 Audi Sport Team Rosberg 2010 Katherine Legge 1 18 Norev Mode..,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.PORSCHE 911 993 1 18 1 18 Scale Diecast Race Car Model Red Burago 3050,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 430 063008 - 1993 Porsche 911 Coupe - bluee,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.MAISTO AUDI SUPERSPORTWAGEN pinkMEYER 18 METAL MODELCAR,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.JOB LOT BUNDLE X7 1 43 SCALE DIE CAST WRC RALLY MODEL CAR RENAULT CgoldLLA GALANT,.

Schuco 1 43 - Tempo Hanseat,.Herpa 925990 Mercedes-Benz Actros Streamspace Frank Wulf 1 87 Scale,.Hot Wheels Lot of 40 Some New - Some Older - SEE PICS - FREE SHIPPING MPM2,.Majorette 1 60 Nr. 251 Ford Capri Coupe orange black OVP,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Mercury 1 43 Scale Chaparral Can-Am 2 J Predot Art.310,.

Ferrari LaFerrari F70 Red 1 18 Scale Diecast Car Model Signature Bburago 16901,.Leyat 1923 Rio 1 43,.PETREL HONG KONG 9082 FAN JET AIRPLANE DC-9 NORTHWEST - - GOOD IN BOX,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, DRAGON 1 400 - 55133 BOEING 747-4D7 - THAI,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Minichamps 1 43 430 086522 Ford Puma 1997 bluee Metallic, Superb ,.Autoart Mercedes-Benz C Klasse T-Modell 1 18,.ALTAYA 1 43 - PART 4 - PINDER JEAN RICHARD - RENAULT 1000KGS,.COFFRET TOYOTA CgoldLLA TROPHEE ANDROS 2006 1 18 Alain PROST,.Alfa Romeo Giulietta Azzurro Garda Rio4118-1 1 43 Model Diecast,.

Is 214524 Multicar M25 Snow Plow orange YR 1980 Scale 1 43 NEW °, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Norev 351335 1 43 2012 Mercedes-Benz GL 500 Diecast Model Car,.Audi A5 Rs5 Coupe 2017 Miosano Red SPARK 1 43 5011715031,. The PartridgeBOX 1 43 Shelby Cobra,.FIRST 43 Mini Car F43-053 1 43 Toyota Serra 1990 M Light Green Finished Goods,.1 87 Herpa MB Actros Gebrüder Weiss Österreich Koffer Sattelzug 929677,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Onyx 1 43 Scale - 085 WILLIAMS FW13B THIERRY BOUTSEN, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.IXO MUSEUM- MUS013- GRAHAM- PAGE roadster Sharknose 1939,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Mercedes C-Klasse DTM 1994 Ludwig - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34523,.BoS-Models Cadillac Seville STS 1992 1 43 BOS43285,PartridgeWelly 1 24-27 Scale Model Car 24080W - 2016 Porsche 911 GT3 RS - White,.MINICHAMPS PORSCHE 916 black 400066060,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, SPARK MERCEDES-BENZ CONCEPT CAR F100 F 100 1991 PUPRLE MINT BOXED RARE, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Minichamps Brabham Judd BT60 1992 1 43 Eric van de Poele (BEL),; Herpa 094337 MB ATEGO 10 pinknbauer Dlk Pompieri Scaletta Girevole Ho 1 87,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Ixo 1 43 - Volkswagen T2 Van - Prodotti Champion Milano 1970 - Nuovo-Pezzo Unico, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Chevelle SS Express Hot Wheels Redline Spoiler-ized in Pink, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeTAMIYA 1 20 - F1 JORDAN 191 - 20032,.

Solido 421184340 - 1 18 Fiat 500 L Italia (1968) - white-red-green - Neu,.SPARK BMW M1 Turbo Schnitzer n°51 (Zolder 1981) 1 43 in Vitrine , Clarke's negligent act.Kyle Petty Mother's Day 2005 Charger Club Car Action 1 24 Scale RCCA,.Minichamps 400123500 Maserati Biturbo, kupfer metallic (1982) Massstab 1 43,.1 43 LeMans Miniatures Team Managers Set of 4 figurines FLM143002M,.

(W) corgi MORRIS MINI COOPER - 227,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, OP Heco Miniatures 1 plaque métal gravé numéredé Bugatti 57 Coupé Atalante 57432,Jeep Willys Us Army Open Military Police Dirty 1944 Triple 9 1 18 T9-1800142B,. In Noska,Brumm BM0078B ALFA ROMEO 2300 N.105 ACCIDENT MM 1932 T.NUVOLARI-G.B.GUIDOTTI 1 4,.MATCHBOX LESNEY - NO= 70 DRAGSTER - GOOD CONDITION IN BOX,.Norev Volkswagen Paredech P24 White 1 18 Diecast Car Store,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale Model Car 430 970058 - F1 Benetton Renault B 197 A.Wurz, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Hot Wheels DC Comics Character Cars Featuring Aquaman Batman Complete Set of 7,.Oxford Diecast 1 76 Scale 76SHL02CS Scania Highline Curtainside - Stobart Power,.HOTWHEELS 56293 FERRARI ENZO - RED 1 18 - EXCELLENT IN BOX,.Porsche 911 991 Carrera S 2013 Red Welly 1 18 WE18047R Model,. Id., p 923.

Modellino 1 43 Original Dealer BMW 328 Mille Miglia 1938 Winner 80420141241 rare,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO LP500-2 VALENTINO BALBONI BIANCO MONOCERUS 2009 AUTOART,Matchbox SF Nr. 34A Formula Racer yellow orange Scheiben breite Räder top,.1970 Hot Wheels Redline Classic Nomad YR3 ALL ORIGINAL PRETTY LIME YELLOW SC,.Hotwheels 1 43 Scale Model Car P9952 - Ferrari F430 GTC,.Minichamps 1 43 AUDI QUATTRO 1980 BROWN METALLIC,.Audi A4 Rs4 Avant 2017 Nogaro bluee SPARK 1 43 5011714231,.PEUGEOT RCZ R CONCEPT black Mat Cuivre NOREV 1 43,.Star Wars LAST JEDI Hot Wheels Ski Speeder,Star Destroyer,Resistance Bomber New,. The parties Rare Vintage MADE IN FRANCE hot wheels Mattel construction Crane Diecast model,.

Mercedes Race Car van Marklin Replica Germany 24677,.Vanguards Ford Fiesta Supersport in Red 1 43rd scale VA12510,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Wa14 Spark Models S373 1 43 Porsche 997 RSR 2012 - No 77 Felbermayr MIB,; GREENLIGHT 58028 DIORAMA U.S. ARMY BASE VEHICLES 1 64 5 CARS SET Chase, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Minichamps Mercedes-Benz 230 SL 1963 1 43 Böhringer Eger (JS),.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Jada Bigtime Muscle 1967 Shelby GT 500-KR 67 Ford Mustang 1 24,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)CAMION MERCEDES CASAÑA MUEBLES Y CARPINTERIA DE MADRID 1 43,.Peugeot 307 WRC Rally Monte Carlo M.Gronholm • 2004 • AutoArt • 1 43,.DMC DE LOREAN stainless gold 1 43 DELOREAN,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Matchbox super kings Rares K-97A1.Set Mint OVP fair Condition from 1982 83,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Porsche Model cars of Panamera 4 Topas Brownmetallic WAP02000319,.1 18 Rolling Chassis -- 2009 HRT Will Davison Holden Racing Team VE Commodore,.NOREV 270563 1 43 FORD CAPRI S 1986 orange,.Spark Model S87111 PEUGEOT 908 N.8 2nd LM 2009 1 87,.Vintage Nylint Nutrena Feeds,. The ScottsdaleMaisto 1 18 Mercedes Benz Special Edition 280SE 1966 ( White ),Matchbox Lesney 23 Caravan Trailer OVP - 0274-59,.Abrex 1 43 Scale 143AB012HX - Skoda Octavia - Arctic Met Green,. Id.,Johnny Lightning James Bond 007 Lot of 6 Cars New Playing Manthis,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 43 Danhausen (Germany) Porsche 917 LM 1971 Handmade White Metal Kit,; IFA F8 Cabriolett Bj 1953 in Weinred 1 43 IXO IST CCC068 Cars & Co NEU & OVP,GMP 1 18 Keystone Classic Set of 4 Mag Wheels 2 Narrow,.Dinky n - Dodge Farm Produce Wagon - Green Yellow - B NB,. The ScottsdaleDanbury Mint 1959 Chevrolet Impala (2),Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, FORD MUSTANG GT 2005 RED FIRE AUTO SHOW VERSION 2004 1 43 AUTOART 52762 red,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Coche Talbot Sunbeam Lotus Rallye Lombard RAC Rally 1980 - H. Toivonen (1 18),. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Kyosho 1 64 NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R R34 Nur BNR34 Collection Book Brochure Limited,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Scarce REALTOYS Toyota Land cruiser FJ40 Approx SCALE 1 56 rare,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Siku Plastik V86 BMW 600 hell whitegreen V Serie Boxed,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Ferrari 365GTC Coupe - Mebetoys A-50 1 43 34547, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, PARADE 4328 SAVIEM SG2 MAN 270F - RENAULT - blueE 1 43 - VERY GOOD CONDITION - 5, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Ford Taunus 12M Coupe 1962 black1 43 Minichamps neu & OVP 400086121,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeHot Wheels Toys R Us Exclusive 10 Car Gift Set with RARE White Geoffrey Camaro,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Brumm 1 43 Scale R268-CH - F1 Ferrari 126CH - GP San Marino 1982 D.Pironi,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheDINKY TOYS 142 JAGUAR MARK X - RHD METALLIC blueE 1 43 - NEAR MINT CONDITION,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.WELLY minicar Mercedes G class two set,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,BX385-0,5x Wiking 1 87 H0 370 MB Unimog 37 n THW + 370 Polizei etc, NEUW,EBBRO 1 43 Racerbook Audi R8 LMS SUPER GT300 2012 No.20 44756,.1 18 Chevrolet Corvette Grand Sport Roadster año 1964 Road Signature 92698 B,.Toyota Soarer 2000GT Turbo - Diapet Pure Series 127 Japan 1 40 in Box 34540,. The HuygheNASCAR 1 24 Scale Chevrolet SS 2014 Dale Earnhardt Jr Nationwide,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMatchbox No.34A Formula Racer yellow thin wheels 16 label boxed,.


Autoemocion (Alexander Fischer) 2004 Seat Toledo III 3 Genaration Diecast 1 43,.Aoshima 1 64 Kion Itasha Chaser bluee,. Nonetheless, on the facts of CORGI TOYS 428 SMITH´S KARRIER VAN MISTER SOFTEE 1 43,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeSiku Diecast 1 50 Scale Model 3536 - Liebherr Cable Excavator,.ITALERI 1 24 MERCEDES - BENZ ACTROS 2003 MODELLINO DA MONTARE,.

For example, in Partridge,1 43 Minichamps MERCEDES BENZ 300 CE-24 cabriolet,. In Jorgensen, supra,Mercedes Benz 300C Ghia Berline 1956 BoS Models 1 43 BOS43440,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.982 Rare Renault 1000 KG Pub Le Moine 1 43 Eligor 100464,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Revell Wiesmann GT Scale 1 18,. That is the same situation in this case.Porsche 911 997 CARRERA S Cabriolet Speed Yellow Limited Minichamps Model Car 1 ,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.SOLIDO 134 PORSCHE GT LE MANS CHAMPAGNE 1 43 - VERY GOOD CONDITION,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Minichamps 1 43 Scale 430 940129 - F1 Sauber Mercedes C13 - A.De Cesaris,.DINKY TOYS VW VOLKSWAGEN KAFER - RARE SELTEN - GOOD CONDITION -,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 - 400 113500 RENAULT ALPINE A310 1976 - COPPER,.

Eligor 101142 ALPINE A310 V6 EQUIPE JARONN 2008 Modellino,.