Swiss Airbus A340-300 Herpa Wings Wings Wings 1 200 05b814

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Swiss Airbus A340-300 Herpa Wings Wings Wings 1 200 05b814
Herpa Wings 1 200 Transall C-160 French Air Force 61-MA 558877,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals COLLECTION OF AIRCRAFT MOST OF THEM DIECAST IN USED CONDITION. SOLD AS SEEN,.Ana Assembly Plane Set 3 Pieces,.Aeroclassics 1 400 Pacific Air Express Boeing 727-200F VH-PAE (ACVHPAE),.Eduard 1 72 Handley-Page Victor B.2 Big-Ed Set per Airfix,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Takom 1 35 Typhoon K Russo Mrap,.Master 1 32 Avro Lancaster B. i III - Set di 8 British Brownings Cal .303,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.There Are Two Wooden Planes Jal,.Corgi 1 144 48101 Boeing Stratocruiser Pan Am,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.12 x Triang Minic waterline model M828L Left Breakwater angles in trade box,.1 100 US Air Force F15A fighter bomber F-15 Fighter Model,.1 72 World War I German Fokker Dr.I single-seat three-wing fighter Fighter Model, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

NEW 1 500 HERPA AIRPORT ACCESSORIES - AIRPORT BUILDING WITH JETWAY 519823,.Corgi 1 72 AA32206 North American P-51D Mustang IV KM272 19Sqn,.1 200 Antonov An-26 Soviet Aircraft model Die Cast 60 DeAgostini,.HOBBY MASTER HA8003 HAWKER FURY I 1934 1 48 Scale,.

Hobby Master 1 48 F4F-4 Wildcat VF-3 White 23 John Thach Yorktown Midway HA8902,.MODELLINO ELICOTTERO AS565 PANTHER HELICOPTER IN KIT 1 35 TRUMPETER,.NEW 1 400 NG MODELS THOMAS COOK AIRLINES UK BOEING B 757-200 Model 53056,.1 72 F86F-30 Sabre USAF Maj. James Hagerstrom,.FOKKER 100 SWISSAIR 1 200 Herpa 559386 Swiss Airlines HB-IVA AARAU,.

DEAGOSTINI 1 1000 - SHIPS OF WAR COLLECTION - LITTORIO 1940 WW2 SHIP MODEL,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.SWISS AIR LARGE PLANE MODEL BOEING B 747 1 150 AIRPLANE APX 47cm SOLID,.HOGAN WINGS 7327 USAF T-38 Talon T-38A Scale 1 200 M-Series - NEU,.1 100 AH-1 Super Cobra US Marine Corps Desert Storm Diecast Display Model,Malaysia Airbus A350-900 Negaraku 9M-MAC JC Wings LH2MAS117 LH2117 Scale 1 200,.JC Wings 1 200 Air New Zealand Boeing 767-300ER LOTR - ZK-NCG XX2861,.

Hobby Master HA8803 Japanese A6M2 Zero Fighter Type 21, 201st Naval Flying Group,.BigBird Big Bird 1 400 Cathay Pacific Boeing 747-400 B-HOY (BB4-2003-032),.7921 F-86F Sabre 1 200 Model JASDF bluee Impulse,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

CORGI AVIATION 1 72 HAWKER HUNTER F Mk6 blueE DIAMONDS, AA32701,.

1960's Frankonia Mail Box Series Air France Caravelle Jetliner, Boxed,. We agree in part.

Corgi 54704 E-one Side Mount Shippensburg Fire Department Ltd Edition 0001 4000,.Maquette AURORA 1 65ème AVRO CF-100,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Herpa Condor Boeing 757-300 Limited Edition 1500pcs. 1 500,.SQUADRON SIGNAL IN ACTION N.146 H-34 CHOCTAW HELICOPTER,.Phoenix Gulf Traveller Boeing 767 1 400 Scale Diecast Model,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Revell 03987 PANAVIA TORNADO IDS KIT 1 48 Modellino,.GEMINI JETS WESTJET BOEING B787-9 1 400 DIE-CAST MODEL GJWJA1847 PRE-ORDER,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, SAUDI ARABIAN AIRLINES Airbus A330-300 1 200 Hogan 0892 Limox A 330 A330 Saudia,; Eaglemoss Diecast Star Trek Klingon Empire D7 class Battlecruiser w Magazine,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

DeAgostini WW 2 Aircraft Collection No 60 Nakajima Tenzan B 6 N,.Vintage Soviet Union USSR model airplane toy MiG-21,Corgi AA38303 Fokker Dr1 Triplane Jasta 6 Johannes Janz Ltd Ed No. 0001 of 1700,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Wiking Flugzeug England E23, dunkelgrey, selten (Schub11),.

1 1250 Hamburg Süd SANTA URSULA Reederei HSDG Frachter 1951 CM KR 17 Südamerika,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Vintage ERIE Zephyr Car Toy 5-7 8 Original Paint 1930's,.DH Tiger Moth Floatplane Royal Navy T7187 1 72 Oxford,.Gemini Jets 1 400 Scale Model Aeroplane GJBAW355 - Boeing 777-200 - BA G-VIIJ,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, PHOENIX 1 400 A350-900 XWB TAM PR-XTA,; AEGEAN AIRLINES Airbus A321 with Registration SX-DVO 1 200 SEALED & MINT ,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, PGS Models 1 100 Scale 40607 - Royal Air Force Typhoon Die Cast Model,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Swiss Airbus A340-300 Herpa Wings Wings Wings 1 200 05b814Swiss Airbus A340-300 Herpa Wings Wings Wings 1 200 05b814

2006 WINGS OF TEXACO 1935 SPARTAN EXECUTIVE AIRPLANE SPECIAL EDITION Series,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Hogan Wings 1 200 C-17A UAE AIR FORCE,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Corgi 1 72 Consolidated B-24J Liberator The Dragon And His Tail Le Shima 1945,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Phoenix 1 400 JAS Japan Air System Boeing 777-200 JA010D (PH4JAS304) Model Plane,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 125 HELLER BOB CAT France ARIANE Bobcat,.Avion US. d'attaque au sol AV 8 B HARRIER - Kit Revell Monogram 1 48 n° 16878,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1 200 Herpa French Air Force Transall C-160 64e Bearn 70th Anniversary 557955,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Special Hobby Piaggio P 108 1 72 Sealed Decals Regia Aereonautica Sealed,.

Maquette décorative d’avion Beech Aircraft Travel Air,.Matchbox Small Scale Diecast - 97472 P-40 Warhawk Model Airplane,.J FOX MODELS JF7474024 - 1 200 BOEING 747-481 OASIS HONG KONG AIRLINES,.Hobby Master 1 48 HA8004 Hawker Fury Mk.I K5674 43Sqn., RAF, 1930s,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.J-7 F-7 Fishcan Aircraft - 1 72 Scale Diecast Model with METAL DISPLAY STAND,.

TAMIYA 1 700 KIT EXPÉDIER DE D'ASSEMBLAGE JAPANESE LUMIÈRE CRUISER MOGAMI ART.,.1 48 Scale Alloy J-6 F-6 Jet Fighter Aircraft Model with Metal Display Stand,.Corgi 1 32 Scale Supermarine Spitfire,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, CORGI AVIATION 1 144 BOEING 707-331B NI8709 TRANS WORLD AIRLINES,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Vintage 1930s Barclay Slush Metal Coupe Car 5 1 4 long,.Oxford 72AO003 Airspeed Oxford AS.10 V3388 Duxford 1 72,.Hobby Master HA2317 Bristol Beaufighter Mk.VIF Fairwood Common Airfield May 1944,.Corgi 1 72 AA33709 Heinkel He111H-14-6N+BK1 KGr100 Luftwaffe France Blitz Bomber,.1 400 One-Eleven 400 Oman Air Force,.

TUPOLEV TU-22KD SHILO Modelsvit Kit 1 72 MSVIT72022, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Dragon Wings 1 400 Ansett Boeing 767-300 & 737-300 VH-BZF & VH-CZT 55440 Olympic,.CASA C-295AEW. 1 72. RESINA DE POLIURETANO. PredOTIPO,. The PartridgeCORGI 1 72 AA32605 AVRO LANCASTER 419 SQN. RCAF, VR-A (KB726),.1 200 Herpa U.S. Marine Corps Bell Boeing MV-22 Osprey Red Dragons 557788,.Kuwait Airways Airbus A350-900 1 200 SkyMarks FlugzeugModell SKR883 NEU A350 NEU,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, AMERICAN EAGLE SF-340 1 48, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Planet 1 72 Autogiro A-7,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Aeroclassics 1 400 Air Transat Airbus A310-300 C-GSAT (ACCGSAT) Die-Cast Model,.Eduard 1 72 Supermarine Spitfire Mk.iia Big-Ed Set,PartridgeSKY MARKS QANTAS B787-9 Model Plane 1 200 Scale NEW IN BOX,.Gemini Jets Volaris Airlines Airbus A320neo in New color Diecast Model 1 400,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Hawker Fury MkI C Flight Leaders Aircraft RAF 1 Sqn (100 Years Of The RAF), (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, DOUGLAS A-4E SKYHAWK -TOP GUN AGRESSOR SPECIAL - 1 72 -HOBBY MASTER - NEUF ,; Herpa Wings 1 400 Lufthansa Airbus A340 Bayern Munich Audi Summer Tour USA 2016,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Hobby Master HA5405 1 72 Northrop T-38 NASA Ellington Field Texas 1960, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Iran Air Airbus A330-200 EP-IJA Gemini Jets GJIRA1652 Scale 1 400, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1 72 F-16C Fighting Falcon 85-1479, 527th CO, Bentwaters Aggressors ,.

Hobby Master 1 72 Air Power Series HA4351 F-86F Sabre 6433, 1st TWF ROCAF,.Donald Trump Shuttle Airlines Mini Jet Model Plane 1 600 Rare Vtg Schabak B-727, Clarke's negligent act.Corgi CC96603 Celebrating 40 Years of Star Trek U.S.S Enterprise D Rare ,.Dragon 1 200 Avro Vulcan B.2 617 SQD lincolnshire 1964 RAF White Late box,.HERPA R.560900 BOEING 767-300 AIR NEW ZEALAND ECH.1 400,.

AMODEL 1 72 ALEXEYEV i-215,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Tamiya 1 12 Kawasaki Ninja Zx-12r Kit Modello,Hobby Master 1 48 Scale Aeroplane HA8902 - Grumman F4F Wildcat,. In Noska,Hogan Wings 1 200 Airbus A 340-500 Thai AIrways,.Vintage Tri-ang Minic Waterline Ship M.712 NS Savannah - VGC & Boxed,.1 400 ANA 747-400 Pikachu Jumbo jet flap down JA8957,.Witty Wings KLM 777-300ER PH-BVI VERY RARE, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Eaglemoss Diecast Star Trek Vulcan starship Surok Class with Magazine,.Maqueta Tamiya,escala 1 48,HEINKEL He162 A-2 SALAMANDER ,ref.61097,.Herpa FC Bayern Audi Summer Tour 2016 Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 529747,.1 30 Sopwith Pup Dunning (N6453),. Id., p 923.

Oxford 1 72 Heinkel He 162 Salamander Luftwaffe II. JG 1 Germany 1945 AC019,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, BigBird Aeroclassics 1 400 Qantas B747-400 Formula One VH-OJC,Revell Heinkel He219 A-0 A-2 Nightfighter Aereo in Kit di Montaggio,.Hélicoptère jouet toys RC-178 EUROCOPTER EC135 MOTORSPORT France,.1 48 P-40L Warhawk US Army Air Force Sawtooth Apache ,.Dragon 1 400 Scale - 55087 Northwest Cargo B747-2J9F N630US Special version,.Aeroclassics Boeing 767-300 Vietnam Airlines S7-RGU 1 400 Scale Boxed,.HOBBYMASTER HA4513 1 72 McDONNELL DOUGLAS F-15DJ 'AGGRESSOR' 72-8090,JASDF, 2010,.IFE4A0418 1 200 USA AIR FORCE BOEING E-4A 747-200B 73-1677 NO SHF CONFIG W STAND,. The parties GeminiJets GJAAL1702 American Airlines Airbus A319 Sharklets N8027D, 1 400,.

HERPA HER528801-001 - Airbus A350-900 XWB 1 500,.Lufthansa Airbus A340-300 1 200 Limox Wings LH15 FlugzeugModell NEU A340 4049 LH,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, EMIRATES Boeing 777-300ER A6-EBQ 1 200 SKR727 Skymarks Airlines Dubai 777,; CORGI 1 144 47402 AVRO LANCASTRIAN BOAC, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Eduard Big-Ed 1 48 Heinkel He111,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Corgi aviation Wessex HAS 3. AA37602,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 200 Gemini Jets United Airlines Boeing B737-800S Scimitar N76529 G2UAL322 MIB,.Hobby Master 1 48 F4F-4 Wildcat VMF-223 Bulldogs White 2 Marion Carl 1942 HA8901,.Gemini Jets 1 400 TAP 330-300 cs-tow Portugal Stopover RARE,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,South African Airways B747-312 Ndizani (ZS-SAJ),1 400,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.OXFORD WWII British HMS Ark Royal 821 Sqn Fairey Swordfish I Torpedo-bomber 1 72,.Hasegawa Cp14 51214 1 72 Beau Fighter Mk. X,.New In Box - Texaco Pedal Plane 1999 - Metal - 1938 Gendron Air King - Red,.Boeing 777-200 United N775UA Herpa 561020 1 400 in OVP [PQ],.1 72 Scale Su-30 Alloy Metal Diecast Model Aircraft Birthday Christmas Gift,. The ScottsdaleHERPA R.560894 BOEING 747-400 AIR NEW ZEALAND ECH.1 400,Hogan 400 Boeing 777-300ER,.Gemini Jets 1 400 British Airways 3 Airplane Set Boeing 727-200 Die Cast RARE,. Id.,1 200 Herpa 557368 U.S. Marine Corps Bell Boeing Osprey Nighthawks,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, AIR FORCE 1 F-16D Falcon 480th Fighter Squadron, USAF , 1 72 Metall,; Airberlin ETIHAD Moving Forward Airbus A320-200 1 200 Limox Wings AB07 A320,Atlas Editions 1 72 Scale Model 4 909 319 - Supermarine Seafire Iwo Jima 1945,.Italeri 2669 - Hawk T. Mk.1 scala 1 48,. The ScottsdaleGemini Jets 1 200 American Airlines Boeing 737-800 N983AN (G2AAL321) Model Plane,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 4529 BOEING 747-400 SOCCEROOS QANTAS DIE CAST MODEL 1 200 SCALE AEROPLANE,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; SkyMarks Southwest Heart One Boeing B737-800S 1 130,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Vietnam Airlines Boeing 787-9 VN-A861 Gemini Jets G2HVN532 Scale 1 200,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, REVELL MONOGRAM 1 25 2013 Camaro ZL-1,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Rare Corgi AA99183 'Merlins Over Malta' - The Defenders Return 1 72 2 piece set,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Schuco 3557623 BOEING 747-400 AIR NAMIBIA 1 500 Modellino, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, XY168 ITALERI 1 48 maquette avion 827 McDonnell Douglas F A-18 Hornet Marine Us, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, BigBird Big Bird 1 400 Virgin Atlantic Boeing 747-400 G-VFAB (BB4-2005-017),; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgePhoenix 1 400 Qatar Airways Airbus a350-900 One World - A7-ALZ ,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 72 Alloy Airplane Model J15 Carrier Aircraft Military Fighter Plane Model,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheInflight 500 Kenya Airways Boeing 767-300 1 500 Scale REGY-KQX Diecast Model,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Corgi 1 144 Scale Diecast - 48701 HP Victor K2 Tanker Bruntingthorpe,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,1 200 T-4 bluee Impulse 1 66-5745 22014 World Aircraft Collection,Japanese WW2 Diecast Fighter Aircraft Airplane Model 1 72 Nakajima B5N,.Herpa Wings 1 200 Douglas DC-6 Delta Air Lines N1901M 557382,.Colonial Raptor – Armament Greenstrawberry for Moebius 1 32 Battlestar galactica,. The HuygheAIR FORCE 1 MODELS 1 72 B-24D LIBERATOR - AF1-0157,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheJC WINGS JCLH4109 1 400 XIAMEN AIRLINES BOEING 737-8 MAX 2000TH REG B-1136,.

Chasseur Allemand FW 190A-4, As Mayer, 1943 - HOBBY MASTER 1 48 Réf. HA7424,.Hobby Master HA1715 Bell P-39N Airacobra 100 GIAP Soviet Air Force White 01 ,.

JC Wings 1 400 Japan Airlines JAL 787-800 'Studio Ghibli' JA828J,.Wiking Flugzeug Russland R5 DB-3F , Massstab 1 200 (Schub17),. Nonetheless, on the facts of NOS CORGI DOUGLAS C47 DAKOTA RAF RARE NEW,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 72 Gladiator Sgt. Ron Walter's Mk.II,.Corgi AA31208 - Avro Vulcan B.2 XH558 230 RAF Waddington 1960 1 144 Scale,.

For example, in Partridge,1988 Ertl Jet Tran Lufthansa Douglas DC-10 Diecast 8+ 6 Fuselage x 5.5 wingspa,. In Jorgensen, supra,Dragon Wings Titan IIIC w Launch Pad Maiden Flight 1 400 Scale 56341 NIB,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Imam Ro 37 bis 1 48 Regia Aeronautica sigillato sealed,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Boeing 747-400F Emirates Sky cargo 1 500 Herpa,. That is the same situation in this case.KLM B-777-300ER (PH-BVA ), 1 200, Gemini Jets, Very Rare ,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Hobbymaster 1 72 HA0102 Douglas SBD-2 Dauntless VMSB-241 Midway,. Detroit Edison, supra.

2005 Speccast John Deere Wedell-Wiliams Racer Airplane New in Box,.EDK7 REVELL 09103 1 144 MAGIC FLIGHT PANAVIA TORNADO F.3,.ICM Caccia Notturno Do 17Z-7 Modellino in kit di Montaggio,.

Gemini200 - JC Wings 1 200 JAL Boeing 747-300 Resocha - JA8183 LH2043,.