Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Wings of the Great War 1 72 US Air Service Salmson 2 A2 Recon Plane, WW11301,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals BAE HARRIER FA.2 RN DECOMISSIONING SCHEME SATAN-1 HOBBYMASTER 1 72,.1 400 A319 N750MX Mexicana,.Collezionismo GIOCO PARACADUTISTA PLASTICA PARASCENSIONALE EOLO GIOLITTO TORINO,.Stratofortress B-52 Diamond Lil Bomber Vietnam War Christmas Ornament Airplane,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Herpa Wings 1_500 515726 Antonov Airlines AN-225,.De Havilland Dh89 Dragone Rapide G-Apbm Rac Airplane 1934 OXFORD 1 72 OX72DR009,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.1 72 F-15J JSDAF 7th Wing 204th TFS No.52-8954, 2011,.Hobby Master 1 72 F-111F Aardvark 493rd TFS RAF Lakenheath HA3019,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 100 DELTA A320 1 100 NEW LIVERY,.Dragon F A-18C Hornet USN golden Dragons DW50036,.Aeroclassics 1 400 Qantas Airbus A330-300 VH-QPJ Rainbow Roo (ACVHQPJ), Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Yonezawa Tin Friction Eastern Airline DC-7C Airplane w Box,.Forces of Valor 1 700 British Adnurak Class Battle Ship HMS Hood FV-861002A New,.1 48 GULFSTREAM IV MARQUIS JET 1 48,.JC Wings 1 400 A320SL Scoot airlines 9V-TRN,.

Corgi 1 72 Scale AA38207 Douglas C-47 Skytrain 50th TCW Upottery Devon,.1 35 Verlinden WWII German troops 4 kits NEUF-NEW-NEU,.1 100 F-15 Eagle US Air Force,.Gemini200 - JC Wings 1 200 Boeing 737-8MAX N8704Q LH2156,.Herpa Wings 1 500 Austrian Airbus A310-300 prod id 501538,.

Dassault Mirage Iii E Kit REVELL 1 32 RV03919 Miniature,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Amercom Helicopter 1 72 Eurocopter AS532 Cougar French Army France 2000 ACHY50,.Matchbox 1 48 Scale Plastic Kit PK-463 - Chance Vought F4U-1A Corsair,.Savoia Marchetti S.73 in SABENA service - 1 72 - Sem Model 72806,Corgi 1 72 German Messerschmitt Bf 109E-4 Fighter - H. Marseille, AA28003,.DRAGON WINGS 1 400 - 55549 BOEING 747-400F - GREAT WALL AIRLINES,.

HOBBY MASTER HL1403 1 200 SPACE SHUTTLE,.HA8611 Hawker Hurricane RAF, 310 Czech Sqn.,England 1940,Hobbymaster 1 48,NEU&,.JC Wings 1 400 Cathay Pacific Airbus A330-300 B-LAI (XX4818) Die-Cast Model,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

AVIATION Gloster Javelin Fighter Made By Dinky Toys,.

JC Wings 1 200 Boeing 777-300 ER - Eva Air,. We agree in part.

MODELLISMO TRUMPETER KIT MODELLINO AEREO F8F-1B BEARCAT 1 32,.Top Marques 1 12 Scale Resin TMR12-02AD Subaru Impreza WRC 3rd MC 98 Dirty Ver,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Wooster Plastic Kit 20cm wingspan Plastic - 536 Continental DC10,.Phoenix 1 400 Qatar Cargo Boeing 747-8F A7-BGB ,.Herpa Wings 559287 Russian Air Force Tu-160 'Alexander Novikov' 1 200 Scale,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; V-22 Osprey Airplane Plastic Kit 1 48 Model 2622 ITALERI,.Ertl Model Aeroplane Appx 18cm Long 1168 - McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 1 200 GEMINI JETS Gemini200 G2QFA152 Bombardier Dash 8-100 QANTASLINK,; 1 72 Devon C.Mk 2 WB534 RAF Transport Command,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

ORBITER (SMALL) 1 200 ATLANTIS,.British Airways 767-300 Die-Cast Airplane - 400 Aviation, 1 400 Scale New in Box,Hobbymaster 1 48 Scale HA8509 P-51B Mustang Short-Fuse Sallee 356th FS 1944,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Marushin 1 48 Shiden kai Normal Local Area Fighter Semifinished Model,.

British Airways B-747-400 (G-BNLR) HongKong , Inflight200, lim. Ed. 588 pcs.,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.UFO Robot goldrake Grandizer Legacy of Revoltech - Kaiyodo 14cm,.1 200 Herpa Thomas Cook (UK) Airbus A321 557634,.WINGS OF TEXACO EAGLET UTILITY GLIDER AIRPLANE REGULAR SPECIAL SET in Series,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, VINTAGE CORGI TOYS MODEL No.1312 BOEING 727 JET PASSENGER AIRCRAFT MIB,; CORGI AA33907 SPITFIRE Mk1-ZP-A, No 74 SQUADRON RAF Flt Lt ADOLPH SAILOR MALAN,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, WIKING Flugzeug - E 16 - Short Stirling III - mit Abzeichen,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).


1 72 Su-27 Flanker-B Russian Air Force 941st IAP, Red 36, Barents Sea,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.



This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

STMG04 NX-class Starship 1 1023 Model Enterprise Starfleet w Magazine,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Trumpeter TP2868 AEREO A-3D-2 SKYWARRIOR STRATEGIC BOMBER KIT 1 48 Modellino,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.GEMINI G2AAL630 1 200 AMERICAN A330-200 N290AY,.PURSUIT PLANE LIMITED EDITION DIE CAST 1 3 SCALE MODEL 1993 XONEX,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1 100 TWA 757-200 1 100 NEW LIVERY,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Yes 1 500 Jas B 777-200 Rainbow 777,.

Airplane Aeromexico Boeing 777-200Er Phoenix 1 400 Metal,.Atlas Editions 1 144 Scale Model Aeroplane 4 646 108 - FW 200 Condor,.BBOX 1 200 BOEING 747-200 - CONTINENTAL AIRLINES N33021 IF742CO1218,.1 48 Hobbymaster P51D Mustang Old Crow,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Herpa Wings Amsterdam Airport Pier G Corridor & Pier H (Länge Pier G 37,5 cm, Lä,.

JC4089A 1 400 ASIANA AIRLINES BOEING 777-200ER STAR ALLIANCE LIVERY REG HL7732,.Lufthansa Airbus A350-900 1 200 Limox Wings Flugzeugmodell NEU A350 LH37 D-AIXA,.Hogan Lufthansa (D-AIZZ) Airbus A320Sh 1 200,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Christmas Giftled Flashing Lights Sounds Intelligent Toy Kids bluee,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.NEW Corgi Aviation US33813. P-47D-22, 302nd FS 332nd FG, Tuskegee Airmen, 1944.,.Heller 1 400 la Fayette Francese Frigate,.IF7200317P 1 200 CONTINENTAL AIRLINES BOEING 720 N57202 POLISHED WITH STAND,.Hogan Wings 1 200 Boeing 787-8 Boeing House Colour LI1950 + Herpa Wings Katalog,.Flugzeugmodell Modellflugzeug Flugzeug Modell antik Artdeco Stil silver Plane,.

1 400 Gemini Jets Virgin Atlantic Airbus A340-600 Miss Kitty G-VATL - GJVIR507, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Corgi AA 32618 LANCASTER 1 72,.HE531559 HERPA WINGS blueE PANORAMA BOEING 767-300 1 500 DIE-CAST MODEL AIRPLANE,. The PartridgeHawker Hurricane MkI, P3120, 303 Polish Sqdn, Northolt 1940 Corgi AA27602 1 72,.JET-X JET031A 1 200 MD-90 JAS JA8029,.P2v-7 Neptune Marine FRANCE Riesig Avion Aircraft YakAir WOODMODEL,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Aviation 72 AV7224004 - 1 72 WESTLAND GAZELLE AH.1 BRITISH ARMY MIDDLE WALLOP, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Phoenix 1 400 Airbus a380 iflyA380 - F-WWDD ,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Eaglemoss Diecast Star Trek Kazon Warship Raider with Magazine,.STAR TREK Modello Kit ENTERPRISE NCC-1701 Original Serie 1 650 50 ANN. Model AMT,Partridge1 30 F-4U Corsair Limited Edition,.Dragon Wings 1 400 Singapore Airlines Boeing 747-400 9V-SMT Megatop (55452),.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 400 Gemini Jets World Airways MD-11 Retro, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, GEMINI JETS S7 AIRLINES SIBERIA AIRBUS A320(S) 1 200 DIE-CAST VP-BOL G2SBI651,; CORGI AA33716 1 72 HEINKEL HE-111H-16 A1+HK 2. KG53 AIR LAUNCH V-1 FLYING BOMB,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Gemini Jets 1 200 Scale KLM Boeing 777-300ER PH-BVN G2KLM534, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, DRAGON WINGS WARBIRDS A310-300F CANADIAN AIR FORCE CC-150 POLARIS - NEW IN BOX, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeGemini Jets Volaris (Mexico) Airbus A320neo N528VL 1 400 GJVOI1613,.

JC WINGS JCW72SU27002 1 72 SU-27UB FLANKER-C 54TH KERCHENSKIY blueE 43 AB 1998,.RARE Vintage Pre-War 1938 Modern Wonder Rigby HURRICANE MW3 Monoplane Kit, Clarke's negligent act.BATEAU NAVIRE DE GUERRE BOAT FÖRDE FD 87 SP-26 MOSTRAND SCALE MODEL SHIP 1 1250,.HOBBY MASTER HA5103 1 72 MD F A-18F Super Hornet A44-212 RAAF No.1 Sqdn Op. Okra,.Gemini IV Capsule NASA Second Human Spaceflight Desktop Model 1 25 Scale Display,.

EMIRATES EXPO 2020 blueE Boeing 777-300ER 1 200 Herpa Snap Fit EXCLUSIVE DUBAI,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Gloster Sea Gladiator N5519 G6A HMS Glorious (802 Naval Air Squadron 1939),JC Wings Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker Russian Air Force 582ND IAP Poland 1992 in 1 72,. In Noska,Spidernavy 1 1250 US. Versorger MOUNT HOOD SN 2-20 Neuheit in OVP,.HOBBY MASTER HA6202 1 72 F-35C LIGHTNING II CF-01 US NAVY,.Hogan Wings 9468 South African Airways A340-600 'ZS-SND' 1 400 Scale Model,.Ana A380 Airbus First Aircraft Hawaii Flight 1 200 bluee, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.HE530903 HERPA WINGS TUI AIRWAYS BOEING 757-200 1 500 DIE-CAST MODEL REG G-BYAW,.Dinky No 723 Hawker Siddeley H.S.125 Executive Jet - YELLOW WHITE (BOXED),.Hogan HOLH21 - 1 200 LUFTHANSA A380-800 NEW YORK D-AIMH WITHOUT LANDING GEAR,.Corgi US50402 - Huey Iroquois Helicopter - Los Angeles City Fire Dept - MIB.,. Id., p 923.

WW2 Aircraft Airplane Military Model Diecast Armor Vintage 1 48 Carousel Navy 18,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Trumpeter 1 35 UCRAINO t-84bm oplot MBT,CORGI AVIATION 1 48 E E LIGHTNING F.6 NO 74 SQN THE TIGERS RAF TENGAH 003 2500,.Corgi Aviation Nose Art Collection Mrs Bonnie P-51K Mustang Certificate No.0003,.Phoenix 1 400 Jetstar Japan Airbus A320-200 JA02JJ (PH10658) Model Plane,.GJ 400 scale diecast model British Airways Boeing 737 Commercial Airliner G-MSKB,.Dassault Mirage 2000C Tiger Meet FR 1 72 Altaya Avion Aircraft in box,.Corgi Aviation Westland Whirlwind HAR10 XP345 1563 Flight Cyprus 1973 AA39104,.Aviation 72 AV7227003 1 72 Short Tucano RAF Flying School ZF141,. The parties GEMINI JETS BOEING IND. BOEING B777-200LR N60659 HOUSE COLORS GJBOE614 1 400,.

INFLIGHT 200 IF70711117 1 200 TWA BOEING 707-131B N799TW WITH STAND,.Level 1 72 Douglas A-20C Havoc Raf Boston Iii,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, ACADEMY 1 48 KIT AEREO HAWKER HUNTER FGA.9 ART 2169,; Aereo statico Revell SPAD XIII -1 28, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Star Wars Official Starships & Vehicles Coll No 15 - The Tie Interceptor,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, JCLH2119 1 200 MALAYSIA AIRLINES AIRBUS A350-900 NEGARAKU LIVERY 9M-MAC W STAND,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)HA1428 Douglas A-4C Skyhawk US NAVY VA-153, Hobbymaster 1 72,N 17 &,.FedEx - Federal Express MD11 1 200 SkyMarks SKR088 Flugzeug Frachter MD-11 MD11F,.YA077 ESCI 1 72 maquette helicoptere 9076 MI 24 Hind avec figurines russes,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,WAR MASTER 7200010 1 72 BELL UH-18 HUEY - 1964 VIETNAM,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Corgi Aviation Gloster Meteor F8 RAF Horsham AA35011 Certificate No 1250 of 1250,.Dassault Mirage III E Br Brasil 1 72 Altaya Avión Aircraft en Box,.Alaska Airlines ERJ-175 Gemini Jets Diecast Model Aircraft 1 400, GJASA1726,.VERY NICE VINTAGE 1920's DAYTON HILL CLIMBER PRESSED STEEL U.S. MAIL AIRPLANE,.J-Fox Models 1 200 People Express Airlines Boeing B747-100 N603PE,. The ScottsdalePHOENIX 1 400 Airbus A330 DRAGON AIR B-HWG,JC Wings JC2197 - VC-10 C1K, XV104, 101 Sqn, Red Tail RAF 1 200 RARE,.Phoenix 1 400 Sichuan Airbus A330-300 B-5923 (PH10755) Die-Cast Model Plane,. Id.,1 400 757-200 N548US Northwest Airlines,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 72 Tornado F.Mk 3 RAF No.111 Sqn Tremblers, ZE791,; 1 200 American Airlines Airbus A330-200 N280AY With Stand,Diecast Model AA35501 of a RAF Hurricane during the Battle of Britain,.Franklin mint b25 hells fire.,. The ScottsdaleJC Wings JCW72MG29003 - MIG-29 Fulcrum, Polish Air Force Kosciuzkos Sqn Display,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, INFLIGHT 200 IF744UAFINAL 1 200 UNITED AIRLINES B747-400 N118UA FINAL FLIGHTS WS,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; SKR938 Skymarks Southwest Airlines 737-MAX8 1 130 W Wifi Dome Model,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Herpa 558037 - 1 200 Yakolev Yak-40 - Malèv - Neu,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 72 World War II UK Whitney-style Mk.V heavy bomber Fighter Model,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, In Flight 200 IFCLEV130005 - C-130J Hercules C5 - 30 Sqn RAF, Green Camo 1 200,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, JOUET BATEAU NAVIRE DE GUERRE BOAT WELFIA W136 HC KRUGER SCALE MODEL SHIP 1 1250, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Aeroclassics 1 400 RAAF Boeing 707-300 A20-623 (ACA20623) Die-Cast Model Plane, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, JC WINGS 200 1 200 Bac 1-11-501 BUA BRITISH UNITED AIRLINES G-AWYV,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeHawker Hurricane Mk.i Raf Squadron Kenley October 1940 1 72 Model CORGI,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Hogan Wings 1 200 F-14A, US Navy VF-154, NF 100,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheBoeing 767-300 JAL Japan Airllines DORAEMON MOVIE 1 200 SKR798 Skymarks 767,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 155 B-17G Flying Fortress USAAF 390th BG, 570th BS, Liberty Belle ,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,DOMUS Kits DOMUS kits40954 Maßstab 1 152,4 cm arquitectura Triana Häuser Mo,VINTAGE MATCHBOX SEA KINGS K-308 Guided Missile Destroyer Ship - 1970'S BOXED,.LOTTO 6 MODEL KIT HASEGAWA ECC F11+F18+LIGHTNING+T34+GEPARD,.VINTAGE Hubley Kiddie Toy DIECAST PROP Brewster Buffalo Fighter plane USA MADE,. The HuygheOxford Diecast Aviation DH Dragon Rapide RAC Aerial Patrol 1 72 72DR009,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in Huyghe1 400 America West Airlines 757-200, N905AW Gemini Diecast Display Model,.

Virgin Atlantic Airways B-747-4Q8 (OC) Tubular Belle ,.XL047 AIRFIX 1 72 maquette avion 01058 Bird Dog O-1 E F 1988,.

DIE CAST 1927 RYAN AIRPLANE 1 48 by SCALE MODEL SUNCO GAS OILS by SCALE MODEL,.Hobby Master 1 200 HL9017 EC-121R Constellation Da Nang Glider USAF Korat 1969,. Nonetheless, on the facts of RARE Intégrale LES COMBATS DU CIEL 60 maquettes + 60 livres + fiches (Osprey),.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeA6M2B KIT Trumpeter 1 24 TR02405,.Hobbymaster 1 72 Scale Diecast HA4351 North American F-86 Sabre 1st TFW ROCAF,.

For example, in Partridge,ANA ALL NIPPON AIRWAYS B777-300ER POKEMON JA754A JC Wings 1 400 XX4101,. In Jorgensen, supra,Corgi AA31208 Avro Vulcan B.2 RAF Waddington XH558 14+ Aviation MINT 1 144 Scale,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.KING & COUNTRY PIKE & MUSKET STANDING PIKEMAN PNM006 1 30,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Sukhoi Su-17 Serial Modelsvit Kit 1 72 MSVIT72018 Model,. That is the same situation in this case.Gemini Jets JASDF golden-50th Kawasaki C-1 1 200,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Minichamps 1 12 Scale diecast 122 113011 Yamaha YZR-M1 Ben Spies MotoGP 2011,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Solar Turntable display unit for 1 400 or 1 500 scale Gemini Aeroclassic Herpa,.Eaglemoss Star Trek Y-class Freighter Earth Cargo Service ECS Fortunate 49 w Mag,.Miss America P51 Mustang Autographed Diecast,.

Donavia Tupolev Tu-154M RA-85640 - Scala 1 200 Die Cast - JC Wings,.