CORGI CORGI CORGI 1 144 48903 B-29 SUPERFORTRESS WITH BELL X-1 (U21) ca05fb

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
CORGI CORGI CORGI 1 144 48903 B-29 SUPERFORTRESS WITH BELL X-1 (U21) ca05fb
ITALERI 1 48 ARADO AR 196 A-3 SCATOLA DI MONTAGGIO,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Gloster Meteor F.1 EE216 YQ-E T.D. Dixie Dean RAF No.616 Squadron & Fiesler 1 72,.Japan Airlines Jal One World Model 1 400,.Flight Miniatures Delta Airlines Airbus A330-300 1 200 Scale REG N822NW New,.Wiking Grope Flugzeug 1 200 Arado 196 AR 196 dunkelgreen,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Gemini Jets 1 200 Scale Emirates Airbus A340-500 A6-ERE G2UAE383,.Corgi AA37801 Ritt. Manfred Von Richthofens Albatross DV, Jasta 11 1917 in 1 48,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Eduard Accessories Victor K.2 for Airfix in 1 72,.Pan Am Boeing 737 Model Aircraft 1 400 Scale Gemini Jets GJPAA1338,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Atlas Editions 1 1250 Scale Ship 7 572 008 - SS Great Eastern Ocean Liner,.Oxford Diecast 72DR013 1 72 DH Dragon Rapide VH-UFF Australian National Airways,.Gemini Jets 1 400 UPS Boeing 747-8F (GJUPS1627) Die-Cast Model Air-Plane, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1 6 F-15E STRIKE EAGLE 1 64,.HOBBYMASTER HA1428 1 72 A-4C SKYHAWK - VMA-153 blueE TAIL FLIES ,USS CORAL SEA,.Hogan - 1 200 - MEA Airlines A330-200 - 2919 Middle East Airlines,.BX425-0,5Wiking 1 200 Flugzeug leichter Bomber Canberra, OVP,.

Wooster Kit - 17cm Wingspan KIT3 Boeing 737 TEA,.1 72 FW-190A-8 Germany 1944,.Icelandair - Hekla Aurora - Boeing 757-200 - 1 150 - SkyMarks SKR892 - B757 NEU,.Dragon F A-18F Super Hornet VFA-2 “Bounty Hunters” USS Navy Abraham Lincoln 1 72,.Herpa Wings 529983 Asiana Airlines Airbus A350-900 XWB 1 500 Scale Model,.

AMODEL 1 72 MIL MI-12 B-12 Homer,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Wing Kit Collection Secret 1 144 Model Plastic America,.SPACE TITAN III E WITH LAUNCH PAD Dragon 1 400 D56343,.Hobbymaster 1 144 Ju 52 3M G4E German Air Force Merkur,Pan Am - Boeing 707-300 1 150 SkyMarks Modell SKR877 B707 PanAm FlugzeugModell,.HOBBY MASTER 1 72 HA6001 SU-27 FLANKER FIGHTER Russian Air Force, Barents Sea,.

JC WINGS JC2414 1 200 UZBEKISTAN B787-8 UK78701 WITH STAND,.Herpa Wings 1 500 Olympic Airbus A300-600 prod id 501811 released 1993,.Phoenix 1 400 Air New Zealand Airbus a321neo ZK-NNB ,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Hobby Master 1 200 DC-6 Civil Air Transport B-1006 Taiwan 1958 HL5012,.

JCLH4139 - 1 400 MCDONNELL DOUGLAS MD-90 HOUSE COLOR REG N901DC WITH ANTENNA,. We agree in part.

JC Wings 1 400 Cathay Pacific Asia World City 700-300ER B-KPF,.JC WINGS 1 72 JCW72F15001 F-15J EAGLE 306TH TACTICAL FIGHTER SQUADRON,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.JC Wings 1 200 Boeing 767-300F TAM Cargo PR-ADY XX2718 + Herpa Wings Katalog,.Boeing 777-300 Turkish Airlines 1 500 A Star Alliance Member Globally Yours,.V-22 OSPREY GREY 1 96 USMC,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Herpa Wings 1 500 Douglas DC 10-30 Lufthansa D-ADDO Duisburg 531696,.HE514965-001 HERPA WINGS LUFTHANSA A330-300 1 500 DIE-CAST MODEL INGOLSTADT,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Air Belgium A340-300 Diecast Aircraft Model 1 400 Scale JC Wings XX4420,; INFLIGHT200 JFOX JF7472015 1 200 BOEING 747-283B BA G-BMGS LANDOR LIVERY,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

GJ 400 scale diecast model Delta Boeing 717-2BD Commercial Airliner N896AT,.DeAgostini WW2 Aircraft Collection Vo 5 Fighter 1 72 Mitsubishi J2M Raiden Japan,1 72 Jet Provost T5 - The Poachers, RAFC Cranwell,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Trumpeter Russia Mig-29K Fulcrum Figther Ref 02239,.

Oxford 8172HOR003 DH Hornet F3 WB909 RAF Kai Tak 1 72 Fertigmodell,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.BOMBARDIER MITSUBISHI G4M1 TYPE 1 JAPON 1 144 JAPAN BOMBER DEUXIEME GUERRE WORLD,.GJ 400 scale diecast model Allegiant Airlines B 757 Commercial Airliner N902NV,.Corgi 1 72 AA35205 Curiss P-40E Warhawk 11th FS 343rd FG 1943,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Dragon WINGS Pan Am AIRLINES BOEING 727-21 1 400 Scale Model No. 55430 NIB,; Wooster Plastic Kit 19cm wingspan Plastic - 692 American Lightning 757,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay 1 144 Scale Diecast Model by Air Force 1,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

JFOX JFA350003D 1 200 AIRBUS A350-900 ANA JA359A (FLAPS DOWN),. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

1 16 Big tank series No.10 German Army Display model Tamiya Plastic model 36210,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

BOEING B777-200 ER VIETNAM AIRLINES MAQUETTE AVION 15CM,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Tamiya 1 32 MITSUBISHI A6M5 ZERO FIGHTER MODEL 52 ZEKE Scatola di Montaggio,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Atlas 1 76 Scale 4 649 102 Scania Topline Karen Patricia H123 Eddie Stobart Ltd,.Hobby Master Luftwaffe 1 48 BF-109 1. JG 2 (HA8705) Die-Cast Model Plane,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Phoenix Model All Nippon ANA Airbus A380 orange Tortoise KaLa Model 1 400,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.USN Nimitz Aircraft Carrier Huge Ship. Boxed New triang Minic.,.

Herpa Wings 1 400 Air New Zealand A320 Lord of the Rings Arwen & Eowyn (561112),.GeminiJets GJSVA166 Saudi Arabian L-1011-385-1-15 1 400 Scale Diecast Model,.HH-34J Usaf Combat Rescue Helicopter Plastic Kit 1 48 Model TRUMPETER,.JC Wings 1 400 Singapore Airlines A350-900 9V-SMR,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.DeAgostini WW 2 Aircraft Collection 1 72 42 US NAVY Douglas SBD Dauntless Japan,.

580113 P-38L Lightning 1 72 Model Flying Bulls,.CORGI British Airways Concorde Jet Airliner MIB 2003,.Airbus House color A320-200neo 1 150 SkyMarks SKR939 A320neo 320neo neu,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, 1 200 Herpa Luftwaffe LTG 65 Tupolev TU-154M 556460,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Aeroclassics 1 400 Ansett-ANA Fokker F-27 VH-FNL (ACVHFNL) Die-Cast Model Plane,.1 72 P-51D Mustang Glessner's,.Herpa 530835 American Airlines Airbus A319 1 500 Scale Diecast REG N8001N,.Hobby Master HA1036 CF-104 Starfighter Toothbrush 104805,421 Squadron,CAF,1983,.Takom 1 35 Bundeswehr Flakpanzer 1 GEPARD SPAAG A1 A2 2 in 1,.

DINKY TOYS MODEL No.737 P.IB LIGHTING FIGHTER VN MIB, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.GEMINI JETS G2SWA682 SOUTHWEST AIRLINES BOEING 737-800 REG N8653A 1 200 AIRCRAFT,.AIRBUS A330-200 VIETNAM AILINES – MAQUETTE AVION RESINE 30CM,. The PartridgeHOBBY MASTER 1 72 TBM3 (FLIGHT 19) HA1202 GREAT MODEL,.Original Airfix Jaguar E Type 1 32 in Bag sigillato Sealed Red strip,.Kfir C2 C7 1 48 Kinetic,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, CORGI AVIATION 1 72 JUNKERS JU-88C-6 MARITIME HEAVY FIGHTER FRANCE 1943 no 0004, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Revell Supermarine Spitfire Mk.IXc Aereo in Kit di Montaggio,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.LIVRE sur l'aviation L'aviation de chasse française illustré en 302 pages,.Aeroclassics 1 400 Virgin Atlantic Airbus A320-200 EI-EZV (ACEIEZV) Die-Cast,PartridgeHasegawa Plastic Model Fokke Wolf Ta154V 3 1 72,.J-20 Mighty Dragon Fighter 1 72 Plastic Model Kit TRUMPETER,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 400 Trident 2E B-2217 CAAC, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ah-64D Longbow Apache ITALERI 1 48 IT2748 Model,; 1 72 Su-27 Flanker-B Russian Air Force 582nd IAP, bluee 24, Poland,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Hogan Wings 1 200 C-130J Super Hercules Air Force 5538, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Qantas B-747-400 (VH-OJB) Wunala Dreaming , 1 400, Tucano, Rare , (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeContinental Airlines B747-143 (OC) (N603PE), 1 400,.

Herpa Wings 1 200 Boeing 747-400 Lufthansa Fanhansa 557313,.Phoenix 1 400 Qantas Boeing 787-9 VH-ZNA , Clarke's negligent act.Atlas Editions 1 144 Scale Model Aeroplane 4 646 109 - Short Stirling,.Special Hobby F2A-2 Buffalo Yellow Wings Airplane Helicopter,.Zvezda 1 144 Beriev A-50 Mainstay 7024,.

XB-70 NASA Valkyrie American XB70 Airplane Wood Model,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Aeroclassics 1 400 Cathay Pacific Airbus A330-300 VR-HLA (ACVRHLA) Die-Cast,1 72 SAAB VIGGEN AJS37 F10-57 FLYGVAPNET 'THE SHOW MUST GO O AV7242006,. In Noska,Herpa 019378 Junkers Luftverkehr Deutsches Museum München Junkers F13 D 366,.Bombardier Britannique DE HAVILLAND MOSQUITO FB.VI - Kit AIRFIX 1 24 n° 25001A,.POLIKARPOV I-153 CHAIKA (Version Invernal) 1 32 - ICM32011,.Zhou Mura Super Wing Series No. 4 P-51 D Mustang, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Limox Wings Airbus A350-900 Lufthansa Scale 1 200 LH37,.Corgi AA30015 DOUGLAS C-47D 1 144,.1 400 Gemini Jets United Parcel Service B 757-24APF,.HOGAN WINGS 6450 US Navy Boeing F A-18F VX-23 Scale 1 200 M-Series - NEU,. Id., p 923.

AMERICAN EAGLE ATR-42 1 48,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Nakajima A6M2-N Navy Type 2 Interceptor Yokosuka Flying Corps Plastic Kit 1 48,Corgi 1 72 Scale diecast AA99170 RAF 4 Piece Hurricane Meteor Hunter Harrier set,.1 48 P-26A Peashooter U.S. Army Air Corps, Bolling Field, Washington , D.C,.RAF VC-10 TANKER 1 144 AIRFIX,.Super Dragon Wings 1 400 ANA All Nippon Boeing 747-400 JA8963 Marine Jumbo ,.MAQUETTE BELKITS 1 24 PEUGEOT 207 S2000 RALLYE D'YPRES 2009 MODEL KIT - MAQUETA,.Unbranded Plastic - AF727 Boeing 727 Air France,.Gemini 1 200 American Airlines Airport Service Vehicles G2AAL721,. The parties JC WINGS JCW72SU27005 1 72 SU-27 FLANKER RUSSIAN AIR FORCE 582ND IAP POLAND 1992,.

Zf959 Imai 1 350 Modellino Barca B-322 Christian Radich Norway 3 Masted Ship,.Corgi 1 144 47301 Avro Lancaster Battle of Britain Memorial,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, F- 16 FALCON Woodmodel XL 1 35 Aircraft Avion YakAir,; Neuf de Agostini Bombardier Collection 5 Modèles Emballage D'Origine Top Rare, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Thai DC-8-63 (HS-TGY) Pathoomawadi , Aviation200, 1 200,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Albatros 1 1250 DK. Patroler LAUGE KOCH Alk 602B Neu OVP,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Embraer E170 Aeromexico XA-GAM 7.5cm 1 400 Herpa,.JC-Wings JC5119 HAWAIIAN A330-200 N390HA Moana & Herpa Wings Katalog 1 500,.Herpa 556767 Lufthansa Boeing 747-8 Intercontinental,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Witty Wings 1 72 Scale Diecast - 740088 P-51D Mustang,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.♠️MUY RARO y AGOTADOIXO Metal Russian Interceptor MIG-31 Foxhound 1 72 Scale,.PGA Portugalia Airlines Fokker 100 1 500 Herpa Wings,.BRITISH AIRWAYS B747-400 G-BYGF GJBAW1792 1 400,.Eaglemoss Diecast Star Trek Vahklas Vulcan Civilian Transport w magazine,.1 72 Su-27SK Flanker-B TS-2701 Indonesian Air Force 11th Sqn,. The ScottsdaleTEKNO NO. 788 DASSAULT SUPER MYSTERE B1 FIGHTER JET,Corgi Aviation B-24J Liberator AA34001,.Aviation 400 British Airways Boeing 747-400 Denmark Tail Diecast Model 1 400,. Id.,NEW Corgi Aviation US31923, Spitfire VB EN783 - 334th FS 4th FG.,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Eagle Cal 1 72 The North American P-51 Mustangs,; Hobby Master 1 72 F-86F Sabre Pakistan AF Modhammed Mahmood Alam 1965 HA4311,1 30 Hannover CL.111 Utilized by the German Airforce Display Model,.1 72 World War I German Albatros D.V Wing Fighter Model,. The ScottsdaleOxford 1 72 de Havilland DH.80 Puss Moth British Heritage G-AAZP 72PM004,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Corgi AA32604 1 72 Avro Lancaster Adm Prune 106 Sqn Guy Gibson1942 Untouched,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; CORGI 1 72 49303 P51D MUSTANG CONFEDERATE AIR FORCE,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, JC Wings 1 72 JCW72MI17001 Mil Mi17 Slovakian AF 1st Training SAR Squadron 2014,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, German Bv-141 Hobby Boss Kit 1 48 HB81728 Miniature,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Wooster Plastic Kit 25cm wingspan - 673 Airbus A330 TAM Brazil,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, 1 2240 Constitution-class Heavy Cruiser ISS Enterprise Starfleet w Magazine, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, AirMalta (Valletta) A320 {9H-AEO} snap fit model 1 200 scale + AirMalta pen, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, NEW RARE KLM HOLLAND BOEING 747-400 1 200 approx Plastic Model PPC CMD AIR,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgePhoenix 1 400 Continental Airlines Boeing 777-200 N77014 'Peter Max' (PH4COAXXX),." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, DRAGON WARBIRDS SERIES AL-1 AIRBORNE LASER NEW ,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheFISHER-PRICE TOY FIGHTER PLANE, PLASTIC TOY - 8.25 IN LENGTH, VINTAGE,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Daron Worldwide Trading Skymarks Icelandair 757-200 Hekla Aurora 1 150 SKR892 V,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Daron Worldwide Trading 5402-3 1 155 USAAF B-17G Nine'O'Nine Flying Fortress,1 72 Supermarine Spitfire Mk IX Israeli Defense Force,.Minic Ships SS United States,.HASEGAWA 00990 HEINKEL HE51 LEGION CONDOR COMBO 1 72 KIT Modellino,. The HuygheJC Wings 1 200 Swissair McDonnell Douglas MD-11 HB-IWF (LH2125) Model Plane,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuyghePhoenix models 1 400 ANA All Nippon Boeing 747-400 JA8957 Pokemon (PH4ANA057),.

Minicraft Model Aircraft Kit 14595 - 1 144 Scale B-1A Bomber,.Rare 80's Model Learning Figure Scale African American Figurine Statue Secretary,.

Corgi AA31931 Supermarine Spitfire Vc, AR501 No.310 Czech Squadron RAF Duxford,.Aviation72 1 72 Scottish Aviation Bulldog HKG-5 G-BULL Hong Kong AV72-25006,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Aeroclassics 1 400 Delta Air Lines B757-200 N642DL AC419424,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeIF332QFA0617 1 200 QANTAS CITYFLYER AIRBUS A330-200 VH-EBA CRADLE MOUNTAIN W S,.GEMINI JETS PAN AMERICAN DC-8-32 1 400 DIE-CAST MODEL PAN AM GJPAA1337 N809PA,.

For example, in Partridge,Dragon 1 72 Me 109G-6 Erich Hartmann “Yellow 1”,Staffelkapitan 9. JG52,Eastern,. In Jorgensen, supra,Model Airplane Aircraft Fighter US Diecast WW2 Military Armor 1 48 Carousel Yelo,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Mig-25 Rbt Kit REVELL 1 48 RV03931,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,VERY RARE Gemini Jets 1 400 United 767-300ER N675UA,. That is the same situation in this case.Martin B-26B Marauder, USA 1943 1 144 NEW ,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Corgi 1 72 Scale - AA39603 Hawker Audax K5574 28 Sqn Kohat India 1941,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Aeroclassics Mexicana Airbus A320 Cuitlahuac color Diecast Model 1 400,.1 72 F-5E Tiger II Swiss Air Force 6 Staffel, J-3033, Switzerland,.ERTL WINGS OF TEXACO GOONEY BIRD DOUGLAS DC-3C WITH STAND W COA,.

INFLIGHT 200 IF738QFA0119 1 200 QANTAS BOEING 737-800 VH-VXQ WITH STAND,.