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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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NOREV VINTAGE INTROVABILE VOLKSWAGEN 1500 MADE IN FRANCE SCALA 1 43 452051,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Ebbro 1 43 Nissan Skyline Gt-Ex 1980 Red New F S,.RexToys 1 43 Scale Diecast - 1938-1940 Cadillac V16 Sedan - Cream,.Porsche 911 Carrera RSR 2,8, 1974 blue Solido S1801101 1 18,.Schuco 50171064 PIC.SET TRENTINO Modellino,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Politoys S7 Fiat 128 Rally 1 25 1975,.[First43 1 43] Mazda Roadster 2001 orange F43-007,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.A06 Retro Iron Car Model Lenght 12CM Living Room Desktop Decorative Gift K,.Best Model M47144 ALFA ROMEO 33.3 BUENOS AIRES 71 1 43,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 18 I-Scale Audi R8 Spyder V10 2016 red,.BMW 700 LS (keramikblue) 1960,.Norev 1 18 185726 Caravan Hénon (1955), White, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Oxford 1 43 Scale diecast - DAT002 Datsun 240Z Yellow 112,.Rare Matchbox Superfast MB - 45 b BMW 3.0 CSl in orange with Dark Green Windows,.PEUGEOT 406 STW ALLEMAND 1996 AIELLO MINI RACING 1 43,.Maisto 1 18 Lamborghini Centenario Diecast Model Car Yellow 38136,.

Welly NEX 1 24 Scale 24002W - 1965 Shelby Cobra 427 SC - bluee,.Corgi 1 50 Scania Refridgerated Artic Box Trailer H.E.Payne Ltd Box 76601,.Vitesse Cadillac Type 62 Closed Cabriolet bluee 1 43 Scale Diecast Model Car,.MAISTO Benz SLS AMG Red 1 24 Mini Car miniature car TOY,.TA471 MEBETOYS CHAPARRAL Ref A-23 1 43 BEL ETAT,.

Brumm 1 43 Scale Metal Model - R81 BLITZEN BENZ HP 220 1910,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Provence Moulage 1 43 Scale Resin 077 - 1953 Gordini 3L,.1 43 First 43 diecast F43-015 Honda NSX 1990 right hand drive,.Box 1 43 Scale diecast - 8411 AC Shelby Cobra Route in Lega,Lion Car Daf Variomatic London Sydney Marathon 1 43 MINT all original condition,.Citroen C4 WRC 2004 Monte Carlo 18 Solido 9021-06 M BOX,.

Vanguards 1 43 Scale VA06800 - Hillman Minx Mk3A - Ember Red Cream,.PEUGEOT 907 CONCEPT CAR NOREV 1 43 coffret,.Reitze Rietze - 61795 Strobel RTW Ambulance Van Model,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Norev 1 43 Citroen DS 19 Berline 1955 in OVP siehe Bild (A204),.

AUTOart 1 87 scale Toyota 86 key chain aluminum finished product,. We agree in part.

Hot Wheels Speed Shop 100 Car Rolling Carry Case Telescoping Handle Mattel Tara,.Redline Hotwheels Light bluee 1969 Torero oc17213,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.@ 1 18 JADI MODELCRAFT BMW M6 METALLIC GREY MINT BOXED,.Ixo 1 43 Mercedes 1113 1967 Stassano & Stassano Milk TRU009 Brand new,.Dinky Toys F 35A Citroën U23 dépannage dinky service en boîte,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Vitesse VE98086 CHEVROLET CORVETTE 1998,.VAUXHALL NOVA SPORT GRA SCOTISH & NAT CHAMPION 1987 MCRAE VANGUARDS VA11401 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, VW COCCINELLE 1200 CABRIOLET 1951-1952 green MINICHAMPS 1 43,; BUGATTI TYPE 75C WINNER LE MANS 1939 IXO LM1939 1 43,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

RIO 1 43 - Itala 24 40CV Beijing Paris 1907 2,.Wonderful PR-modelcar VW-PORSCHE 914 - orange - 1 43 - lim.edition,Citroen 2CV 6 Dolly Ente 1985 grey red, Modellauto 1 18 Solido,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Alba Siku Modellauto Katalog mit Presliste 1993 - 0092-205,.

Ford Usa Hot Rod 1932 Yellow MotorMax 1 18 MTM73172Y Model,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.FIRST 43 F43-094 Mini Car 1 43 Mitsubishi Grandis 2003 White genuine from JAPAN,.Vitesse Opel Ascona 400 Sanremo Rally 1981 L184,.Zaz 966 Light Grey 1967 (IST 1 43 IST028),. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 43 Minichamps Lamborghini Murcielago Concept Car in red Andromeda,; Bestbox Best Box 2509 B.R.M. Form 1-3L rare bluee 99.9% mint in mint box superb,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Corgi Major 12” SKYSCRAPER TOWER CRANE Diecast Vintage Toy RARE 1155,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Audi A5 Cabrio 2017 green 1 43 Audi 5011705333 neu & OVP,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 Street (orange) 2011,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Corgi MASSEY FERGUSON 165 TRACTOR WITH SAW - 73 INNER PLINTH,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Matchbox Toys Number 38 Model A Ford Van - Augusta Airways - Very rare ,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Matchbox Superfast No 60 Lotus Super Seven Light Yellow MIB RARE,.BMW X5 V12 Le Mans black Spark,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.CMNL UKBUS5006 Mercedes Citaro Bus Eireann MIMB,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Peugeot 905 Le Mans 1992, SPARK, 1 87,.

2006 Land Rover Range Rover Sport Supercharged Granate 1 18 Maisto 31135,.Wartburg 311 Cabrio Green & off White 1959 (IST 1 43 IST004),.Quartzo 3016 Porsche 935 Kremer K3 'Swap Shop' 43,.DISC 1 43 FORD FIESTA S2000 TEST CAR 2009 IXORAM443,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.TRIUMPH TR7 FHC in Triton Green 1 43 scale model CORGI Vanguards,.

LAND ROVER 110 DEFENDER MODEL CAR HEATHROW AIRPORT POLICE 1 43 CORGI CC07709 K8,.Nylint Mr. Goodwrench Tractor Trailer,.1 43 Renault 16 gold metallic 1965 Minichamps Lim.Ed. 400113101 NEU OVP,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Ford Galaxie 500 Fire Dept. CARMEL,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.1994 Racing Champions Sprint Car Doug Wolfgang -- 1 24th scale,.Solido + Transkit SB 1 43 - Ferrari 512 S Daytona 1970 No.28,.Maisto 1 24 Scale Diecast 31901 - 1989 Mercedes Benz 500SL - Light bluee,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 NSU Ro 80 1972 430015404,.Ford Escort Iii Cabrio 1983 Minichamps 1 43 400085031 Model Diecast,.

Hachette Franz.Oltimer Feuerwehr ACMAT TPK 641 6X6 1 43 Sonderpreis, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.No PLAY orange BMC 1800 Pininfarina 1969 Lesney Matchbox Narrow Wheels,.1 87 Brekina Büssing 16000 Lastzug mit Marmo Steine und Erden 74639,. The PartridgeAUDI QUATTRO MOUTON WINNER PORTUGAL 1982 TROF 43,.TYRRELL COSWORTH 018 GP MONACO 1989 TAMEO KITS IN METALLO 1 43,.2005JADA TOYS DIECAST 1 24 DUB CITY BIGTIME MUSCLE 1967 SHELBY GT500KR CAR,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Schuco® 02573 1 43 VW Kastenwagen T1 Deutsche Bundesbahn NEU OVP, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Maisto 1 18 Ferrari California T Closed Top Diecast Model Red (31899),Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.2013 FORD POLICE INTERCEPTOR W LIGHTS & SOUNDS PLAIN WHITE 1 24 MOTORMAX 79538,.Ixo model LMM051 AUDI R 8 N.10 LE MANS 2003 1 43 Modellino,PartridgeDTE 1 55 W. GERMANY SIKU 3880 METZ AIRPORT FIRE ENGINE PUMPER NIOB,.Ixo model RAM120 CITROEN XSARA WRC N.18 2003 1 43 Modellino,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Peugeot ION blue-Metallic, 1 43, NOREV, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, John Deere - Construction Set Tractor w Hay Cart and Pole Trailer,; Ford E493A Prefect 1950 - 1 43 White Metal Kit,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, ORIGINALE AUDI Q7, Bianco Ghiacciaio, 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Mercedes-Benz GLK SUV red 2008 ab Facelift 2012 X204 1 18 Maisto Modell Auto m.., (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeBrekina 1 87 Nr. 018092 Borgward B655 Autotransporter & 4 Käfer Post OVP,.

CORGI - C469 1 LONDON BUS,.1972 Mattel RRRumblers Comic Book Adgreenisement Matted w Bold Eagle Lot 71, Clarke's negligent act.WIKING 1 87 SCALE HANOMAG ST 100 MODEL BN 085101,.2018 Hot Wheels Super Treasure '17 Camaro ZL1 INTERNATIONAL.CARD NO 50TH LOGO,.ERTL GRANDES MARQUES LAND ROVER DISCOVERY 3 - 1.18,.

1 18 Yatming Chevy Camaro Z28 '67 white or bluee,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 1 32 FIAT G-50 SPECIAL HOBBY,Onyx 1 24 Scale Model Car 5006 - F1 Benetton B 193A M.Schumacher,. In Noska,Tins Toys HONG KONG 1970s super sound control van nice mint boxed,.WSI03-1146 - Camion solo IVECO Stralis HI-WAY - 1 50,.V 1 43 SPARK SCFI01 FERRARI F333 SP PRESENTATION USA 1994 MINT BOXED 2,.MAISTO 1 18 SCALE POLICE 1957 CHEVY CORVETTE MODEL BN 31380BKWT, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.PEUGEOT 207 IRC S2000 Super 2000 Czech Champion Kresta 2009 Mogul Abrex 1 43,.Alfa Romeo 8c Spider Touring 2300 (red) Scale 1 18 - 118 Model Diecast Car,.PANZERKAMPFWAGEN II Sd.Kfz.121 Ausf.A B C TAMIYA 1 35 PLASTIC KIT,.FIAT 131 Mirafiori Abarth World Rally Champion 1 43 Mebetoys A131 MB,. Id., p 923.

Renault Alpine A310 kupfer-Metallic, MINICHAMPS 1 43,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Mercedes-Benz S-Klasse Cabriolet A217 Diamant Weiss Ab 2014 1 43 Kyosho Modell..,MG TC Open Top RHD Diecast Model Car 29115,.PREMIUM X 1 43 RANGE ROVER EVOQUE HAMANN 2012 PR0274 ,.ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE FORD MUSTANG BOSS 429 1970 - orange 1 18,.Maisto Classic Muscle 1 24 Scale 31138 - 1965 Chevrolet Malibu SS - Grey,.GREENLIGHT 12921 FORD CROWN VICTORIA 1 18 UNMARKED POLICE CAR LIGHTS & SOUNDS W,.BD414-0,5x Wiking H0 1 87 PKW Mercedes 104+143+144+145+153 Coupé, NEUW+OVP,.Ferrari F12 Berlinetta Red 1 18 Scale Diecast Car Model By Hot Wheels BCJ72,. The parties Lamborghini Murcielago Roadster 2007 orange 1 18 Model MOTORMAX,.

GAMA RENAULT FLORIDE CABRIOLET WHITE EXCELLENT CONDITION,.Corgi 1 76 - Bus Bus Dorset Delights Bristol L6b Weymann Trolleybus,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Bburago 3534, Chevrolet Corvette 1957 auf Präsentationsbrett, in OVP ab956a,; ASTON MARTIN V8 VANTAGE N24 N°8 NURBURGRING 2008 MINICHAMPS 1 43, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Quartzo 1 43 Scale - 4023 LOTUS 72D DAVE WALKER BRITISH GP 1972,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ford Taunus 1974 - silverina Diecast Scale 1 43 New Sealed With Magazine,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)First 43 1 43 Mitsubishi Jipu J30 1961 Glynn New F S,.1 87 VK Hess SwissTrolley TPF Fribourg Linie 2 Schoenberg 18181,.Renault Clio Rs 2013 Red Metallic Model Car 1 43 Norev,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,WILLIAMS FW10 GP MONACO 1985 TAMEO KITS IN METALLO 1 43,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.LAMBORGHINI REVENTON ANTHRACITE 2008 HOTWHEELS ELITE 1 43 1 43 GREY grey,.1 43 OFF 43 ROMEO F 12 AMBULANCIA (ALFA_ROMEO) GROCE white MILANO RARE ,.Herpa Modell Fahrzeug -Leserwahl-Sieger 1991, Ferrari 348tb (1 43) & 2x BMW,.Minichamps Ford Kuga in White on 1 43 in Box,.Bburago 1 24 Nissan GT-R White,. The ScottsdaleMOTORMAX 1 24 SCALE - 73357 - ASTON MARTIN V12 VANTAGE - PEARL WHITE,LOTUS SUPER SEVEN 1968 green 1 43 MAXICHAMPS 940113630 NEU,.Dinky Toys Range Rover, MINT,. Id.,Maisto 1 24 Scale 31281 - Audi R8 - Red,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 2017 Renault Alpine A110 First Edition blue Abysse 1 18 Solido 1801601,; CIJ By Norev 1 43 - Renault 4CV PTT,SHINSEI INTERNATIONAL PLAYTHINGS PORSCHE TURBO RACE CAR JAPAN MIB 1,.Bmw X6 M 2010 Red 1 18 Model 12081R BBURAGO,. The ScottsdaleCARARAMA 1 50 SCANIA OMNILINK DIE-CAST WHITE blueE RED 56702W,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Herpa 927840 MAN TGX XXL Container Sattelzug 2 3a Triton,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; NOREV LOT de 4 BOITES VIDES pour PEUGEOT 402 202 504cab Q3A1950 T.B. ETAT,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Schuco 03879 1 43 VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE 1600I OPEN AIR 1996 WHITE,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Maxichamps 1 43 Scale 940 054201 - 1975 Volkswagen Passat - orange,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Plymouth Barracuda 1969 Green 1 18 Model YAT MING,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Minichamps 1 43 Porsche 718 RS60 Le Mans 24 Hours 1960 Kerguen Lacaze, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Heico MB Pullman TLF 16 FW Unterangerberg heinbach HC2031, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Vw Mini Beetles Hippie w New bug key chains Lot 6,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeTRACTEUR TRIQUEBALLE MAJORETTE EN BOITE CRISTAL,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 1 18 Triumph Spitfire Congreenable 1970 Chrono,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheSchuco Piccolo 05211 Set The Legend in Toys Nuovo Conf. Orig.,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Maisto 1 24 Scale Diecast 31901 - 1989 Mercedes Benz 500SL - Light bluee,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Lot of 3 Hot Wheels 2013 Fast&Furious Official Movie Merchandise 1 64 scale MIB,TAXI LINCOLN TOWN CAR USA YELLOW CAB 1966 1 43 IXO PREMIUM,.2x Vintage Kunststoff Auto Relief - Burwood Products - 70er Jahre USA Oldtimer,.1 18 Bburago Special Model Autodrom 1993 Porsche 911 993 Carrera bluee Rarity §,. The HuygheRedline Hotwheels Rrrumblers Pink No. 5 Rider oc17198,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheGREENLIGHT 12999 1981 CHEVROLET CAMARO Z 28 YENKO TURBO Z 1 18 DIECAST RED,.

GREENLIGHT 1 18 1978 78 FORD MUSTANG II COBRA II WHITE WITH GREEN STRIPES 12895,.1 64 tires CE28 Petronas Greeen fit Hot Wheels diecast model cars - 5 sets,.

HOT WHEELS 1 24 - BLY64 FERRARI 458 SPIDER - RED,.COLLECTORS CLASSICS 1 43 MERCURY MONTEREY CONgreenIBLE TOP DOWN 1954 blue CIEL,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Redline Hotwheels Magenta 1968 Silhouette oc13014,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeLledo 1 76 Scale DG111001 - Sentinel Ballast Box Low Loader & Propellor Load,.RARE NOREV POSTE POSTES PTT RENAULT TRAFIC 1 21 POST IN BOX TRES LOURD THE LAST,.

For example, in Partridge,Schuco 02317 1968 Opel GT Polizei Green White 1 43,. In Jorgensen, supra,1985 Renault R5 Maxi Turbo Tour de Corse 1 18 Solido 1850027,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.RENAULT 5 Turbo Rallye Saby Philips Autoradio 1984 Tour de Corse Solido 1 18,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Corgi No 321 Porsche 924 Coupe - orange (Original 1978 Boxed),. That is the same situation in this case.CIJ By Norev 1 43 - Renault 4CV Police Pie,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.DTE 17 ENGLAND BRITAINS FARM ANIMALS COWS, PIGS, PIGLETS,. Detroit Edison, supra.

HOT WHEELS HWP9942 LAMBORGHINI MURCIELAGO LP 640 2006 YELLOW 1 43,.Mirka goldflex-Soft 115 x 125 mm Schleifpads ungelocht - 200 Pads K 400,.CORGI 1 50 SCALE 17602 SUNTER BROS CONSTRUCTOR 24 WHEEL TRAILER AND LOAD DIECAST,.

Seat Toledo GT h de Franchorchamps 1 43 Ixo neu & OVP GTM095,.