Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals GMP PARNELLI JONES AGAJANIAN WILLARD VINTAGE DIRT CHAMP 1 18 DIECAST RACE CAR,.GLM Cadillac Fleetwood 75 1951 bluee 1 43 GLM121502,.Minichamps Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG GT3 2011 1 18 ADAC GT Masters (MCC),.Looksmart Ferrari 250LM h Le Mans 1966 1 43 LSLM080,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.CORGI MODEL No.94171 THE MINI ITALIAN JOB SPECIAL EDITION FIRST VERSION MIB,.1 43 Porsche 911 S Onsr1 Safety Car 1974 Mini Champs,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.UNIVERSAL HOBBIES UH5209 1 32 DEUTZ-FAHR 7250 TTV 2017,.Mclaren 675Lt Spider Solis TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 43 TSM430202 Model,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Maist Maisto 1 43 Mercedes-Benz Clk-Gtr Warsteiner Car Missing rear wing,.Jeep Classic Wrangler 3-in-1 Grow with Me Walker, White,.Matrix MX006 PORSCHE 997 GT 3 CUP N.32 2007 1 43, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
GLM MODELS GLM43300601 INFINITI QX56 2011 BROWN METALLIC ED.LIM.1 OF 299 1 43,.AutoArt Ford Focus RS WRC 2000 1 18 Sainz Moya Rally Monte Carlo (JvdM),.MINICHAMPS 1 18 FORD ESCORT RS 1800 N.10 VATANEN RICHARDS RALLY DELL'ACROPOLI 19,.Peugeot Boxer Portair 2003 Vehicle Carrier Norev 1 43 479010,.
GT Autos Welly 1 18 Scale Metal Model - Range Rover Evoque - Pearl White,.WSI 01-1446A Mercedes-Benz MP3 L Brunner,.Matchbox Yesteryear Y11 Lagonda Drophead Coupe gold Strawberry Chassis Issue 4,.Dinky Toys - No.49 Petrol Pumps Set -post-war (hoses poor) mint boxd c1952,.NISSAN FAIRLADY Z BRILLIANT WHITE PEARL HPI 1 43 RESINE,.
Almost Real 420703 Mercedes AMG GT R 2017 Metal Red Limited Edition 1 43,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Volkswagen VW 1200 Cabrio Hebmueller 1949 Red Cream 1 18 Model 107054231,.1 18 HOT WHEELS ELITE FERRARI 333 SP 60TH RED CHROME L2975,.Norev 1 18 Scale Plastic - 185726 Caravan Henon 1955 White,Revell 1 18 Scale diecast - 08426 Audi Avus Quattro Brushed Alloy Finish,.E CONRAD 5066 PELICAN ELGIN STREET SWEEPER CREAM NEAR MINT CONDITION RARE SELTEN,.
Minichamps 1 43 Scale 80 42 9 421 115 - BMW M3 Group A 1995 Wollgarten Oestreich,.Vignale Corvette 1961 Red 1 43 Model AVENUE43,.MATCHBOX SUPERKINGS MODEL No.K-27 MISS SOLO POWERBOAT & TRANSPORTER MIB,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
GMTS - goldEN OLDIES LINIE 50 2771 2achs Kippanhänger einfachbereift 1 50,.
J-Collection 1 43 Lexus IS-F 2008 Safety Car White Limited Edition from Japan,. We agree in part.
Bmw 700 Martini Type 4 1964 White 1 43 Model AVENUE43,.New Japanese famous car collection vol.21 Honda S600 Coupe 1965 1 24,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1 18 1967 Chevelle SS396, butternut yellow ,,.Ebbro EB44273 DAY & NITE SPL N.18 JAPAN GP 1969 CLASS WINNER 1 43 Modellino,.1960s Dinky 103 Captain Scarlet Spectrum Patrol Car original superb,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; IXO Porsche 911 SC Rally Monte Carlo 1982 Waldegard Thorszelius 18 New ,.1 18 1964 Shelby Cobra 427 S C -- Road Signature Collection,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Peugeot 174 Coupé Chauffeur 1929 - Kit CCC 1 43,; Corgi 75206 ERF Curtainside Massey Wilcox Ltd Edition No. 0005 of 2240,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
WEISE-TOYS 1030 CLAAS XERION 4000 SADDLE TRAC 1 32,.Quartzo 1 18 Scale 18292 Team Lotus Type 72E R. Peterson 1st 1973 Italian GP,HOT WHEELS ELITE FERRARI F355 SPIDER CONgreenIBLE YELLOW 1 18 DIECAST MODEL BLY35,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.NEO 1 43 CADILLAC Fleetwood Allweather Phaeton 1933 NEO 45769,.
Dinky 972 20To Lorry Crane Coles (mit Box),.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.ABC BRIANZA 346 ALFA ROMEO 6C 2300 BERLINA 6 LUCI CASTAGNA 1934 1 43 UNMADE KIT,.Mercedes 540K Sport Coupe 1936 black, Modellauto 1 43 Neo Scale Models,.Jaguar Xk150 Bertone Coupe 1957 Red MATRIX 1 43 MX11001-031 Model,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1969 Dodge Charger Daytona 426 HEMI whiteo 1 18 Auto World AMM1091,; ORIGINAL Matchbox Superfast Soopa Coopa No 37 - Pink color - SPECIAL NO FLOWER,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, DINKY (25S) PRE WAR SIX WHEELED WAGON - RED,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
NEO. Mercedes-Benz L 206D Orion II Camper Motorhome. White.1 43. 00045625,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Brooklin Lansdowne models LDM 61, 1937 Jensen 3.5 litre S Type, Boxed,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes O 3500 Bus 1950 light bluee dark bluee,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
McLaren Senna Mira orange 1 43 TRUESCALE TSM430395,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Minichamps 155811122 Audi Quattro Audi Sport,.Audi Quattro 1980 black 1 18 Minichamps neu + OVP 155016121,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Ssangyong Istana 100D Korea Emergency model swat toy car 1 35 Mica toys,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.VDL Citea Bus White 1 50 Model HOLLAND OTO,.
1949 MERCURY CLUB COUPE WELL DETAILED REPLICA SKU 528,.Mercedes A-Klasse (W177) 2018 red Modellauto 1 18 Norev,.Schuco 08965 - Neoplan FH 11 Bus yellow-red Shell Renndienst 1 43 Sonderpreis,.NEO MODELS NEO44646 1 43 HUDSON COMMODORE COUPE LIGHT BEIGE 1948,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.BROOKLIN BRK 58 1963 1 2 FORD FALCON SPRINT 1 43,.
PREMIUM CLASSIXX PCL47072 UAZ 452A AMBULANCE (3962) NVA 1 18,.Tekno Toys, 1960's MG 1100 Rallye Model, Original,.Hot Wheels bluee Card Baja Breaker ATV Motocross Variation MINT on CARD,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Ford Mustang GT Coupe Sterling silver grey V 2. Generation 2009-2014 72911 1 1..,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Neo Stutz DV32 Monte Carlo Sedan By Weymann 1933 Beige 1 43 46865,.Hot Wheels 2003 MEA Dinner Dance Employee Shaken Not Stirred,.A.C.Williams USA voiture de sport en Fonte années 30,.2008 Hot Wheels RLC 1966 TV Series Batmobile Redline Club Exclusive - RLC 07933,.HOT WHEELS 2011TREASURE HUNT SET-COMPLETEALL 15 CARSVHTFRARET,.
Almost Real 410104 Land Rover Range Rover 1970 Green 1 43 Scale, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Eidai Co 1 43 - Ferrari 308 GT Rainbow Bertone - Nearly Mint model-no box-RARE,.Wonderful KESS-modelcar MERCEDES-BENZ 540K (W29) ERDMANN+ROSSI 1936 - 1 43,. The PartridgeMatrix 41001-052 Jaguar D-Type Michelotti Le Mans Baujahr 1963 in red 1 43,.Siku Plastik Katalog 1961 (24 seitig) - 0019-205,.Mercedes-Benz 500K Four Passenger Tourer Mayfair Matrix Scale Mode,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Norev 183478 Mercedes-Benz S-Klasse (V222) AMG-Line Baujahr 2016 blue 1 18, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Matchbox Models of Yesteryear Y11 Aveling & Porter Steam Roller MIB Superb,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.MINICHAMPS 1 18 BMW M6 GT3 N.98 BLOMQVIST CATSBURG SPENGLER 24H SPA 2017 MODELLI,.TRUE SCALE MINIATURES TSM154351 1 43 1977 PORSCHE 935 DAYTONA 24H MARTINI,PartridgeALFA ROMEO 1900 CSS GHIA COUPE 1954 silver 1 43 MATRIX 50102-031 N,.Matchbox Superfast No 44 Boss Mustang Lemon Yellow VERY LIGHT Amber Glass VNMIB,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Nikko Kogyo Japan Voiture car tôle moteur à pile ancien 19 cm tin toy, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, ERTL 1969 PONTIAC GTO JUDGE PRE PRODUCTION 1 2500 GTOAA POCI NATIONALS ISSUE,; Hot Wheels HWT6288 FERRARI F.MASSA 2010 1 18 Modellino,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Mercedes Benz - W 123 Break - Mercedes 280 TE - bluee metallic - Minichamps 1 43 , (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, DINKY TOYS MODEL No.204 FERRARI 312P MIB, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgePORSCHE 911 TURBO 1990 red METALLIC 1 18 MINICHAMPS 155069102 NEU,.
CODEX Ford GT40 Le Mans 1966 Shelby collectibles NIGHT Version,.CORGI 475 CITROEN SAFARI OLYMPIC WINTER SPORTS - VERY GOOD in original BOX, Clarke's negligent act.McLaren MP4-12C Spider 2013 orange 1 43 Model TRUE SCALE MINIATURES,.Lada Priora 2171 2014 DiP Models resin 221711 1 43,.LAMBORGHINI HURACAN LP 610-4 SAFETY CAR 2016 Looksmart LSSC,.
CAT CATERPILLAR 330D L HYDRAULIC EXCAVATOR WITH SHEAR 1 50 DIECAST MASTERS 85277,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, TEKNO 832 MG 1100 VINTAGE DENMARK DIECAST CAR NM,Chgold Q No.A-85 NISSAN MID4,. In Noska,450900200 Schuco 1 43 2017 Mercedes-Maybach 6 Vision Cabriolet , Dark bluee,.1966 Ferrari 365 California Spyder red 1 18 KK-Scale 180051,.Mercedes Benz Edition CLK Klasse Coupe 1 43,.Tekno - SCANIA Promo - Articulated Lorry - with - Box Trailer, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Ebbro 24013 Honda NSX 1 24 Scale,.155283 Norev Citroen DS3 Coffret 4er Set 1 43 Modellauto Limitiert,.1 43 1966 Cadillac S&S High Top Ambulance red white Neo Scale Models NEO43899,.Burago 1 18 Scale Diecast - 18-76101 Ferrari 488 GTB 70th Anniversary Green,. Id., p 923.
Peugeot 404 Cabriolet 1967 Mendoza bluee 1 18,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, KYOSHO LAMBORGHINI VENENO RED LINE 1 18 GREAT MODEL COLLECTORS EXPENSIVE KYOSHO,Mercedes Benz Sauber C 9 Baldi Johansson 1 18 Nip,.PROVENCE MOULAGE 1 43 RESIN MODEL KAGER EDITION - FERRARI 246 GT - YELLOW,.Lansdowne LDM64A - 1950 Bentley Mk VI Ivo Peters 1 43 White Metal,.. SPARK S1412 TRIUMPH SPITFIRE RN. 49 LE MANS LM 1964 DARK GREEN MINT BOXED,.FERRARI F355 SPIDER CONgreenIBLE ELITE YELLOW 1 18 DIECAST MODEL HOTWHEELS BLY35,.2016 Ford Mustang GT 5.0 yellow-black 1 18 Auto World AW229,.Hot wheels Elite Ferrari 458 Speciale 1 18 Limited BLY33,. The parties Matchbox Superfast Konvolut 3 Deutsche Hösbach OVP,.
Corgi mustang Bullitt Steve McQueen,.Porsche Carrera RSR 1 18 AUTOART,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, RACING CHAMPIONS IRON MAN SERIES WARD BURTON CATERPILLAR 1 24 SCALE D4,; Onyx 1 43 Benetton Ford B190 1990, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Schuco SH2929 HANOMAG L28 KREIDLER 1 43 Modellino,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ferrari 400 Superamerica (1962) Resin Model Car DC180061,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Corgi 1 50 Scale 17601 - Scammell Constructor 24 Wheel Low Loader Hills,.Ebbro 1 43 Formula Nippon Kondo Racing J.P de Oliveira from Japan,.1969 Dodge Charger R-T Dirty Mary, Crazy Larry 1 18 Auto World AWSS101,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,HOT WHEELS FERRARI 360 MODENA WHIPS METAL COLLECTION 1 18 DIECAST,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Danbury Mint 1965 Pontiac GTO 1 24 Scale Die Cast Model with Box Lot A,.NOREV 1 18 - 188351 AUDI A5 CABRIOLET - WHITE,.HWY. 61 DECADE OF DIECAST STUDEBAKER 1 18,.Wiking 077826 Krampe Hakelift Thl 30l with Roll Container Big Body 750 1,.RENAULT 12 color PAIN D' EPICE REF 1424 DINKY TOYS EN BOITE ANCIENNE,. The ScottsdalePORSCHE 911 993 Carrera Cup 1993 Grohs Hasseröder Manthey GT Spirit Resin 1 18,1 18 Autoart Chevrolet Corvette Indianapolis May 26th 2002 Rarität §,.1 18 Kyosho - Ferrari 575 GTC 2004 yellow,. Id.,Cardboard Figurine Christijan Albers European Minardi Team (height 182 cm),.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Danbury Mint 1 24 Scale Diecast - 29 Jaguar XK120 1949 Bronze,; METAL BUILT KIT 2 SMTS ROLLS ROYCE CORNICHE 1 43 - RARE SELTEN - IN BOX,Without Outer Box 2 Sets 1 43 Onyx Ferrari 643 F92A Allegi 1991 1992 642,.1962 Ferrari 400 Superamerica red 1 18 KK-Scale 180061,. The ScottsdaleMINICHAMPS - 1 18 - OPEL REKORD C COUPE - 1966 - 107047020,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Caterpillar 1 50 Scale Deicast Cat AD60 Articulated Vehicles 85516 Yellow Alloy,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Solido 100 serie no 126 Mercedes 220 SE 99.9 % mint in box a beauty,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Lexus Lfa Coupe 2012 White Mark43 1 43 PM4334CW Model,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, ( Gokr ) 1 18 Autoart Mitsubishi Pajero,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, MATCHBOX CHRYSLER JEEP WRANGLER IN RED RARE BELGIAN PROMO MODEL MIB,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, ASAHI COLLECTION 8801 MERCEDES-BENZ SSKL 1929 W06 COURSE 1 24, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1960 CORGI CITROEN D.S. 19 VG w GOOD BOX, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, 1959 PONTIAC BONNEVILLE CLOSED Diecast 10 inch SUNSTAR 1 18 PLATINUM YELLOW,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeGiocher FST01P FIAT STILO POLIZIA 5 PORTE 1 43,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Carrara 01-017 1 43 Ferrari 250 TDF Resin Handmade Model Car,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in Huyghe2012 Mercedes-Benz A-Class W176 red Júpiter 1 18 Dealer Edition B66960124,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Matchbox No.29C Tractor Shovel green body from 1000 PS Set Germany 1977,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,La Grande Guerra Fiat 18 Bl Autocarro Militare +4 Figures Rio 1 43 RIO1915-1D,Kyosho Minicar Nissan 300 ZX Racing red japanese vintage vehicles car model 5K,.Voiture FORD CROWN VICTORIA POLICE INTERCEPTOR Les Experts MIAMI CSI 1 18,.1 18 Sunstar Platinum, Citroen DS 19 Cabriolet, bluee,. The HuygheDuesenberg Jn 559-2587 Base Rollston Bohman & Schwartz MATRIX 1 43 MX50406-022,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheDIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE 1959 MERCURY PARK LANE YELLOW SUN STAR 5152 1 18,.
1 43 MDS Racing Lancia Delta HF Integrale Evoluzione red Coventry M17,.DINKY TOYS 138 HILLMAN IMP SALOON METALLIC GREEN BOXED ALL ORIGINAL 99.9% MIB,.
3 rare Opel Manta A Modelle von Pilen bzw. Artec in 1 43 mit OVP,.MATCHBOX CAR TRANSPORTER (K8) VGC KINGSIZE Original Box a Lesley product rare,. Nonetheless, on the facts of ANNECY MINIATURES 1 43ème FERRARI BB 512 blackE REF 185,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMetal 43 Danhausen 77.78 1 43 Mercedes-Benz 190 Handmade White Metal Model Car,.Jadatoys 1965 Shelby Cobra 427 Sc Product Big Time Muscle Management No.815,.
For example, in Partridge,Ferrari 250 GT Berlinetta Competizione Baujahr 1956 red 1 18 CMR,. In Jorgensen, supra,Renault R11 Turbo Rallye du Portugal Limitiert auf 2.000 St. Otto Models 1 18,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Lendulet Lemezarugyari 1 32 VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE Tin Plated & Plastic Car MIB,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,PARADE MODELS 1 50 - NO.9 BERLIET GAK POMPIER FPT - FIRE ENGINE,. That is the same situation in this case.Auto Art 1 18 Porsche 911 GT3R White Diecast,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Porsche 550 Durlite Spyder - 1 of 333 - autocult - 1 43 - 07007,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Red Line 1 43 Ferrari 360 Modena Le Mans 2002 RL001,... TEKNO DENMARK 719 MORRIS OXFORD SALOON GREY NEAR MINT CONDITION,.Norev NV183224 BMW M1 1980 blueE 1 18 Modellino,.
PLAYRT PLAY ART 19 CADILLAC ELDORADO GREEN MINT BOXED RARE JAPANESE BOX ,.