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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Kyosho Nissan Pathfinder RC new in box Very RARE. Tamiya bruiser,.SCP-HK2-2221-1630 Scorpion HKII-2221-1630 Brushless Motor (530W, 1630kV),.Kids Stuff RC Fury Racer Radio Control Race Car 1 10 Scale 27mhz,.SABHC304-S SAB Goblin High Performance Tail Belt,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.NKOK Racing Hyper-Speed Green Helicopter R C,.Toyota Yaris WRC TT-02 - Tamiya R C Kits - 117318,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.CARRERA RC 370501032 Super Flying Cape Mario Toy,.HELIFAR F36 Mini Drone 2.4G 4CH 6Axis Gyro Headless Mode Remote Control RC Qu...,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Sky Rover Dark Stealth - 3.5 channel R C Gyro Helicopter.,.STOTOY FPV RC Drone with 720P HD Wi-Fi Camera Live Video Feed 2.4GHz 6-Axis Gyro,.Originale Xiaomi Mitu Wifi FPV 360 Taumeln Rc Drone con 720 P Videocamera HD, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Holy Stone HS100 Drone RC 1080P WiFi Camera GPS FPV Headless LED 4CH Quadcopter,.Tamiya 300058572 1 10 RC Volkswagen Beetle (M-06),.KYOSHO CALIBER 30 50 MAIN redOR HEAD ASSEMBLY C W FLYBAR ASSEMBLY,.C0FA Funny Gift Drone Altitude Hold 2.4G 4CH 6-Axis 1080P Quadcopter,.

Holy Stone HS230 Storm Racing FPV RC Drone with FOV HD Camera 5.8G LCD 2 Battery,.Align T-Rex 450 LP Dominator ARTF,.2.4GHz RC Drone 4CH 6Axis Gyro Mini Quascioter LEDs & 360°Flips Helicopter Gift,.E2C5 1080P Camera RC Drone SO1 1080P Camera UAV Drone 1080P Camera Drone,.HENSELEIT 3D NT CARBON FIBRE MAIN FRAME SECTIONS & SPACERS,.

Kyosho RC Modell Go-Kart Rarität mit Verbrennungsmotor u.Servos 1,8ccm,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Selfie Drone With Camera 0.3MP 2.0MP Fpv Rc Drone Helicopter Remote Control Toy,.560 mm NHP CARBON FIBRE MAIN redOR BLADES 12mm ROOT 4mm HOLE 60mm CHORD,.2X(JJRC H49WH WIFI FPV Ultrathin Foldable Selfie Drone RC Quadcopter RTF P2A4),Foldable Drone 33056S Camera WIFI FPV RC Helicopter Quadcopter Selfie Drones,.RC Drone Altitude Hold Mode Hover & 3D Flip Function With TF Card & Card Reader,.

Motion Control Drone Mini Quadcopter Kids Helicopter New Small,.Radiosistemi SH6030 Helicopter SH C7 3 Channels Infrared orange modeling,.KM -Racing H-K1 Radio Plate,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

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Tamiya 1 10 Rc Car Special Product The Frog Green Metallic Dt-03 Chassis 47371,. We agree in part.

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A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.NOV50357P-358 - Polished Tuned Pipe Set for Novarossi R57HR3D or similar en,.8498 Multicopter H1W 4CH 6-Axis 1080P Drone VR LED Optical Positioning,.BetaFPV Beta85X HD (BNF - DSMX),." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; XXL Schrauben-Set Stahl hochfest SWORKz S35-3E high strength screw kit,.LIDI RC L8HW Wifi FPV Drone 720P Camera Altitude Hold 2.4G 6-axis Gyro RTF G2Q4,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, H32GH 5.8GHz FPV 2MP HD Camera RC Drone 2.4Gh CF Aerial 6Axis 4CH 3D Quadcopter,; Kugel Antriebsachse Radachse hinten Marder FG 06079 01 6079 1,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Tamiya 1 14 Rc MB Arocs 3363 6x4 Classicspace Kit 56359 Hell Pistolet Métal,.Hubsan X4 Desire H502E Quadcopter GPS Return To Home - White - Free UK Delivery,Traxxas Rustler RTR blue TRX37054-1-blueEX,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.MJX Bugs 5W B5W 1080P 5G Wifi FPV Camera GPS Drone Quadcopter +1 2 3Battery Lot,.


A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Mint Modelers 1 43 Initial D Toyota 86 Ae Treno Takumi Fujiwara 2 Cars Set,.600 mm ALIGN CARBON FIBRE NIGHT FLYING MAIN redOR BLADES 12mm ROOT 4mm HOLE,.Italeri 1 35 M32 Recovery Vehicle - -6547 -6547,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, RC Drone New Excellant model,; Hubsan H507A X4 Pro FPV Drone RC Quadcopter APP Control 720P GPS Wifi Waypoint,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Parred AR Drone, HD Camera, Never Been Used,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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Tamiya 56306 1 14 Radio Control Semi Flatbed Unassembled Trailer Kit TAM56306,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

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This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

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This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

TRX6411A - CARROSSERIE blueE PEINTE ET DECOREE + AILERON XO-1 TRAXXAS,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.1 12 RC MB UNIMOG U300 DESERT RALLY 2,4G Carson 100% RtR NEU in OVP ,.Traxxas TRX77086-4orange X-Maxx 8S Limited orange Edition Brushless 1-5 4WD 2.4G,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.DACC Global Drone X183 2.4GHz Quadcopter Aircraft GPS Altitude Hold Helicopter,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.H70115 700DFC Carbon Main Frame(R) 2.0mm,.

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Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Kinderfahrzeug - Elektro Auto Mercedes GLA45 AMG - lizenziert - 12V4.5AH Ak...,.

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The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Signed Mazda Collection 1 64 Roadster 2015,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.LHI 250mm Pro Pure Carbon Fiber Quadcopter Frame Kit + CC3D Flight Controller +,.Blade Fusion 270 ARF BLH5360,.JXD 512DW 2.4G 6-axis 4CH HD Camera WiFi FPV Gyro RC Quadcopter Altitude Hold UK,.Redcat Lightning Drift With extra Contact tires.,.Walkera 5-6 Heli Micro Lama RC Helicopter,.

Drone RC Quadricottero Controllo Remoto 2.4G WiFi 720P Altitude Hold Quadcopter, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.JJR C NH-011 RC 2.4G RC Aircraft Drone with Altitude Hold Headless Mode Z,.TRX5340X - COUDE D'ECHAPPEMENT ALU TRX 2.5 2.5R 3.3 TRAXXAS,. The PartridgeCarson 500707099 Modellsport Unimog Mercedes Benz U300 THW 1 12,.88A9 Multicolor Stable Gimbal New RC Uav Long Distance Control GPS Quadredor,.Kyosho INFERNO MP9 TKI4 READYSET T1 (KT331P-KE21SP)+ Radio K.82631M2+REDTS4,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Ricambi di elicottero elettrico henseleit radiocomandato fusuno canopy Tdr rc, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Jamara Jamara422011 2.4 GHz F1X Altitude AHP Plus Quadrocopter with Wi-Fi FPV,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.HIROBO EAGLE FREYA LOWER MAIN FRAME SECTIONS UNUSED,.Stunt Remote Control Boat Racing Car 360°Spins Double Sided Amphibious Rc Boats,PartridgeKyosho Motorrad Hanging On Racer Suzuki Rgv 1992 Kit KYO34931B,.SCHLUTER CHAMPION MAIN FRAME SIDES (PAIR),.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, TE2802H TESTATA CILINDRO MOTORE A SCOPPIO SH28 CXP 1 8 CYLINDER HEAD 1PC HIMOTO, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, TRAXXAS 8025 Barra Luci da Tetto LED LIGHTBAR TRAXX,; 9DE2 32FA 6-Axis 720P Camera UAV Drone GPS Drone Foldable 72P Camera Drone,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Lefant Mini RC Drone for Kids, Mini Flying Drone for Kids Beginners 2.4GHz with, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Remote Control Drone with Camera – U818A Discovery HD Camera Drone Long Range or, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeNine Eagles Bravo III Mini Helicopter Kit,.

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The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Motore brushless rc 540 13.5t sensored,WHEELY KING 4X4 RTR (106173) - HPI Racing - HI-WHEELYKING-240,. In Noska,Vintage HPI racing mini super radial tires ITEM 4530 fit tamiya m-chassis,.Syma X5SW-1 Drone 2.4G 4CH 6-Axis FPV Quadcopter HD RC Camera RTF Explorer Batte,.SIRIO S21090222 CUSCINETTO POSTERIORE IN CERAMICA 14.2X25.3X6.2MM,.Radio Control 1 16 Diy RC Excavator 2.4G with sound effects Gift Toy Boy, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Wedico103-W Hinterachse für Standard-Fahrgestelle zwillingsbereift WEDICO-models,.Foldable Wide-angle120°720P Camera WIFI RC Quadcopter Altitude Hold Selfie Drone,.Orlandoo OH35A01 1 35 EP Scale Crawler Assembly Kit Body RC Cars KIT WithoutElec,.Torro RC 1 16 Bausatz Motorrad Zündapp KS-750 1 Solo - 2222000176,. Id., p 923.

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In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, ZUME TENNIZ PORTABLE DRIVEWAY TENNIS,NEW Propel Air Combat 2.4ghz Motion Controlled Battling Helicopter Red,.Drone 2.4Ghz RC WIFI FPV Quadcopter HD Camera 4.5Ch Aircraft,.RC Quadcopter HJMAX Drones FPV 1080P WIFI Camera 2.4G 6-Axis One Key Return UK,.XK K120 Shuttle 6CH Brushless 3D6G System RC Helicopter BNF,.MD 500 E Glasfaser-Rumpf 500er Heli yellow-black, zB T-Rex CopterX Heliartist,.82FD Funny GPS Drone 720P Camera UAV Drone Hover Quadcopter 6-Axis Follow Me,.Revell Control QuadroCop 2.4 GHz Modello Radiocomandato,. The parties Original WLtoys V911S 4CH 6G Remote Control Helicopter RC Airplane Gyro Plane,.


Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, NIB SEALED Propel Star Wars 74-Z Speeder Bike Quadcopter Battle Drone SW1983CX,; TRX-4 Stainless Steel Realistic Footboard Rearview Mirror Skid Plate ExtendPanel, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

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Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, RC HELICOPTER LESSONS IN THE NORTH WEST,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)2ED7 Quadcopter 720P Camera UAV Drone Funny GPS Follow Me 720P Camera Drone,.IFlight Strider X2 Remote Radio Control Brushless Racing Drone DIY FPV Racer,.60E6 4CH 6-Axis Gyro HD 720P Drone White LED Dual Cameras SG900s,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Flytec TY930 2.4G 4CH 6-axis Altitude Hold RC Quadcopter,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.TRX8252R - CARTER D'ENTRAINEMENT ALU ANODISE red AVANT GAUCHE DROIT TRAXXAS,.GoolRC T47 6-Axis Gyro WIFI FPV 720P HD Camera Quadcopter Foldable G-sensor Z5B8,.KYOSHO INFERNO MP7.5 MP777 IFW-146 Support suspensions upper front,.Hover camera WIFI flying camera RC Hold Quadcopter Camera Selfie Foldable Drone,.R005 CILINDRO E PISTONE PER MOTRE greenEX .18 DA 3 cc CYLINDER AND PISTON HIMOTO,. The ScottsdaleRC Fully Remote Controllable Wall Climbing Climber Car Toy + Headlight - Red ECP,Flybarless elicottero rc elettrico radiocomandato spirit sab goblin Speed fbl,.Goolsky Dongmingtuo X8 RC Drone Quadcopter FPV 2.4G 720P Camera Wifi Altitude,. Id.,Red Cat Racing Crawler Gen7 SPORT Brushed 2.4GHz - EDITION silver - RTR 1 10,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, RC 1 10 4WD Drift Racing Car G4 Frame Chassis disassembly Kit Metal Carbon,; OUTRAGE VELOCITY 90 CANOPY (B),Drone radio control with camera A8 Wifi FPV. Vision in time real,.Tamiya 1 35 Toyota Model AB Phaeton -35338,. The ScottsdaleTamiya Team Reinert Racing MAN TGS TT-01E,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, TAMIYA 1 12 RC TOYOTA CELICA LB TURBO Gr.5 COMPETITION SPECIAL,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Remote Control X-Cam Quadcopter with hd camera video Brand New In Box,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Multifunctional robot toy radio control robot RC car from Japan,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, DRONE QUADCOPTER FX-6CI CON CAMERA E VIDEO HD - ODG - 8056045596369,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Revell RC Helikopter Rexx 2,4 GHz NEUHEIT Hubschrauber 23868,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Ricambi elicottero a scoppio radiocomandato rc capottina canopy per Gaui x4 rc, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Microbit Robot Kit Programmable Robot RC Car APP Control Web Graphic Program SJ, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Hubsan H107D Quadricopter X4 FPV RTF modeling,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeRC4WD 1 10 Desert Runner ARTR w Hero Hard bluee Body Set RC4VVJD00028,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Nitro RC Car Kit Remote Control Syclone Self Build Petrol Drift Race Rally 1 10,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheCC HAND Metal ARB-DELUXE BAR for killerbody LC70 body,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Traxxas 8181 Tires and wheels, assembled, glued Brand NEW,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,KALT SPACE BARON 30 MAIN redORHEAD ASSEMBLY WITH FLYBAR SEESAW,Nitro Aangedreven HSP 94166 1 10 Cross Country Car 4WD 18CXP 2.4GHz RC Car,.Tamiya Sand Scorcher 2010 Off-Road Racer Kit TAM58452,.F490 2.4G 4CH 6-Axis Gyro 480P UAV Funny RC Outdoor Stable Gimbal Quadcopter,. The HuygheJJRC H59 Ferry WIFI FPV APP Control With 1080P HD Camera Altitude Hold Mode RC,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheRumpf-Bausatz SA 330 Puma 1 32 für Blade 200SRX, Walkera CB180 V200D02 u.a.,.

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Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeHolybro Tekko32 F3 Metal 4-in-1 ESC,.S5HW Selfie FPV RC Drone Quadcopter with Altitude Hold 720P HD Camera WS,.

For example, in Partridge,Remo 1093 1 10 Electric 4WD 2.4G 4CH Remote Control Double Steering Crawler Car,. In Jorgensen, supra,DS24 Spooky SYM X5C Quadrocopter Drone 2,4 GHz (inkl. 2 Fernbedienungen) Top ,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.BBURAGO 12014 - JEEP WRANGLER 1-18 SAHARA,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Traxxas 82056-4C TRX-4 Land Rover sand matt Limited Trophy-Edition 1 10 NEU OVP,. That is the same situation in this case.DCH-330 Full Size Drone Quadcopter With Built-In HD Video Camera - 4 Channel, 6,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.JY019 Foldable Selfie RC Drone With FPV Wifi Camera Altitude Hold Quadcopter J8,. Detroit Edison, supra.

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