VINTAGE TRIANG MINIC SHIPS - M782 - HMS TOBRUK TOBRUK TOBRUK X 3 - RARE UNBOXED DIECAST 01d163

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
VINTAGE TRIANG MINIC SHIPS - M782 - HMS TOBRUK TOBRUK TOBRUK X 3 - RARE UNBOXED DIECAST 01d163
BuB Mobile 1 87 Fiat 500, Pink Mega RAR Limited 96,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals KIT MOUNTING F1 TOKEN JR02 FORD PRYCE BELGIO GP 1974 1 43,.DINKY TOYS RENAULT FLORIDE N° 543 310802,.Renault Zoe Modellauto Farbe white 1 43 NEU OVP,.AE206-0,5x Wiking H0 LKW Sattelzug Lastzug Mercedes MB diehl Spedition etc,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Type 181 Kyosho Volkswagen Card Included,.Alte JAG's Denmark R.M.L. 16 Pound Kanone 1st Version,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Rare Vintage Cresent Toys no 665 Transport Ship (pre-war issue) - Boxed,.CAMION, MAN, Reloj en modela miniatura, -01,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Sw1831, Wiking Siemens Büssing 8000 Tiefladezug & Kabeltrommel 1 87 BOX mint Wer,.SET OF 8 BATTLESHIPS 1 1250 HMS USS DIECAST MODEL WAR WW2 ARMY - WARSHIP,.Bus Isuzu BXD 30 1 43, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Ford Taunus 17M 1957 red-white 1 43 Premium X Modellauto PRD387,.G LGB 1 24 Scale Model 1955 Chevrolet Chevy Bel Air Nomad Hard Top Yellow 73248,.BATEAU NAVIRE DE GUERRE TOY BOAT NEPTUN DUNKERQUE N 1404 SCALE MODEL SHIP 1 1250,.Bburago 1 24 Die-Cast Jaguar XK120 Roadster B18-22018,.

FERRARI BERLINA RC 1 24 95187,.Solido 143502 PEUGEOT D4 1964 1 43 Modellino,.CITROEN 2CV Picasso 2007 PR0014 Premium X 1 43 New in a box RARE ,.MB Mercedes Benz 207D VAN Eddie Stobart 1 36 CORGI Box,.Land Rover Defender 300TDi TDi TD5 110 Green White Roof 1 24 Scale Diecast Model,.

Atlas Editions Dinky 530 - Citroen DS19 - Red Cream,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Herpa HO 1 87 Art 144711 Scania Aufleger Sotrafi neu OVP M 5,.Wiking 1 87 Klassische Baufahrzeuge 5 Art.Nr 99019 NEU + OVP,.Oxford Diecast MM032 Morris Camper Van Green 1 43 Scale Boxed,GUNTHER Move Sailing Yacht (Damaged Box) with adjustable sails and rudder,.Collectors Classics 1 43 Scale 1804 - Unboxed 1955 Chevrolet - bluee White,.

CORGI 1 76 42402 LEYLAND LEOPARD PANORAMA I SOUTHDOWNS,.ROAD CHAMPS DODGE CHARGER 1969 - GREEN METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 6,.AB139-0,5x Wiking H0 PKW-Modelle Porsche 911 C + BMW 328, TOP,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

IXO Daewoo Nexia (1994-1997) in silvermetallic 1 43 NEU PC-Vitrine,.

NORSCOT 55269 Cat 247B3 Multi Terrain Loader;1 32,. We agree in part.

SIOSA FRATELLI GRIMALDI ship VENEZUELA Ex. De Grasse ex. - model ship 1 1250,.Corgi Classics 854 - 1929 Thornycroft AMBULANCE ,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Hms Lord Nelson HOBBY BOSS KIT 1 350 HB86508 Model,.809A Brumm R185 Bentley Speed Six 1 43,.Revell German LSM Eidechse-Klasse kit Modellismo Navale in Plastica,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; 1 24 Alloy Car Model Famous Vehicle Doors Open Excellent Collection Light Sound,.Matchbox Y12 GMC Van, 2nd Dusseldorf Toy Show,code 2.,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Atlas Editions 1 1250 Scale Ship 7 134 131 - HMS Nelson,; Roco 2408 VW Transporter Typ 2 SF-DRS White With Livery 1 87 Scale Plastic S14,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Japanese Battleship 1933 Sendai Light Cruiser CL 1 1100 Warship Navy Model,.PORSCHE 917K 1000KM BUENOS AIRES 1971 MARTINI RACING TEAM Brumm R571,Modellauto Opel Vivaro A Marine blue Transporter 1 43 1799054 9162811 Original,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.OPEL OLYMPIA CABRIOLET Beige MINICHAMPS 1 43,.

1 43 1 43 BRUMM FIAT 500C 500 C TARGA FLORIO LIMITED EDITION 1995 S032 - MB,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.U.S. USS Aircraft Carrier CV-4 Ranger Nave Portaerei 1 350 Plastic Model Kit,.MODELLISMO TRUMPETER KIT MODELLINO NAVE USSR MINSK 1 700,.Véhicule militaire char kpz leopard 243 12 1974- SOLIDO n c2,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Schuco Mercedes-Benz Actros UNITAS 2000 Schrader (22070) - 1 87,; Skid 1 43 Scale Diecast Model SKW022 FORD FOCUS WRC WINNER CYPRUS RALLYE 2000,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, 1 43- Miss Great Britain III racing power boat resin model,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

VINTAGE TRIANG MINIC SHIPS - M782 - HMS TOBRUK TOBRUK TOBRUK X 3 - RARE UNBOXED DIECAST 01d163VINTAGE TRIANG MINIC SHIPS - M782 - HMS TOBRUK TOBRUK TOBRUK X 3 - RARE UNBOXED DIECAST 01d163

FORD SIERRA RS COSWORTH CARLOS SAINZ 1 43 JARAMA 1988,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Brekina 71815 Liaz 706 Sattelzug in hellblue VEB Leuna - Werke 1 87 NEU ,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Vanguards 1 43 Scale VA07600 - Land Rover Series II - Midland Red,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Lincoln Continental SS-100-X 1961 JFK J.F. Kennedy 1961-1963 1 43 Model,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Wiking 069326 THW - tiefladehängerzug (MB NG) 1 87 (H0),.Constructo 80838. Model boat wood. Cliper Cutty Sark. 1 115+Tool,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Greenlight 1 64 Scale 44790-B - B.A.'S 1983 GMC Vandura - The A Team,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Renault 4L chevaliers du ciel collection hachette,.

Maisto Lamborghini HURACAN LP610-4 diecast metal model Police car vehicles,.Ebbro 1 43 Nissan 350 Z JGTC 2004 G'Zox Hasemi,.Jadi Paragon 1 43 - BMW Serie 4 Coupe F32 red,.Corgi 1 43 Scale Diecast D982 2 - Bedford Dormobile - Red Beige,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.PORCHE 911 (997) GT3 RSR N° 45 1MSA 1 24 BURAGO,.

SET OUTILS JARDINAGE SERVICE 1 24 Landscape,.RC SQUALO 3 FUNZ.CM.9,5 ASS. 37945,.KIT MADERA ALBATROS CON HERRAMIENTAS GRATIS 1 55 CONSTRUCTO 80702,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, LATVALA, RALLY MONTE CARLO 2018, TOYOTA YARIS WRC 01, AUTO IN goldLOGIO MINIATURA,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Oxford Diecast OX43VF004 1 43 VAUXHALL FIRENZA SPORT SL SUNSPOT,.Schuco Elektro Record 5555 Boot Boat W. Germany Boxed,.Neptun 1131 British Heavy Cruiser York 1 1250 Scale Model Ship,.Isuzu Gemini 1500 C C 1987 Seychelles bluee Norev item 800721 scale 1 43,.Armstrong Siddeley Hurricane Green 1 43 OXFORD ASH002,.

Atlas Editions 1 24 Scale Motorcycle 4 110 105 - Moto Guzzi VII Le Mans, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.EFE 1 76 15611 ROUTEMASTER BUS BURNLEY & PENDLE 25 BURNLEY,.Auto World Chase Ultra Red 1966 Oldsmobile 442 Vintage Muscle Red Tires,. The PartridgeA.S.S WIKING ALTER OPEL KAPITÄN P2 TAXI black 1968 GK 149 5B CS 347 1A 1WTOP,.Mayflower 1 60 Plastic Model Kit TRUMPETER,.Apink KULM , Apink LINE Emigrant Ship model ship sc1 1250,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, VW Volkswagen Polo R WRC Latvala Rally WRC Frankreich 2014 Gewinner 1 43 White.., although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.REMORQUE PORTE VOITURE GMP 143 Ref 14304,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Schuco 5375 PIC.NSU 1000TTS Modellino,.THE MONKEES MONKEEMOBILE CAR MINT BOXED MODEL CORGI,PartridgeIxo Press Rally Mounted Carlo 1 43 - Simca 1000 Rally 2 1973,.Herpa 148535  MAN TGA XXL Tieflade-Sattelzug mit Ariane-Tank Reichhart ,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, MINICHAMPS PORSCHE 911 GT3 RS T2M MOTORSPORT LE MANS 2005 1 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Fire Brigade Commer Water Tender 1 72 Kc1,; ISO RIVOLTA GT 1963 Neoscale 1 87 NEO87292 Model,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, KIT MOUNTING F1 ALFA ROMEO 177 TEST BRAMBILLA BALOCCO 1977 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Tatra 603 4-Door 1969 Dark Red ABREX 1 43 143ABS-401BY Model, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeStudebaker Commander bluee - DINKY TOYS DeAgostini 1 43 DIECAST MODEL CAR 540 24Y,.

HOTWHEELS ELITE 1 43 FERRARI ENZO blackE P9936 ,.Mutsuki Neptun 1269 Ship Model 1 1250 shpz14 Å, Clarke's negligent act.Schuco Piccolo Porsche 911 Museum Stuttgart ,.Mercedes-Benz CLS 350 Cgi 351300 Norev 1 43 NEU OVP,.Corgi Toys No. 469, London Routemaster Bus - 'BTA Welcome to Britain', - Superb.,.

NH Camion russo Ya3-452a - ussr cccp - by Alan hobbies - hobnhka - tr 43,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Herpa 152884 MAN TGA XLX Sattelzug TCH , Fertigmodell in H0, NEU & OVP,Fast and Furious Diecast Mega Diesel Hauler - Stores 14 Cars - NEW,. In Noska,MAISTO 31136 LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO SPYDER 1 18 LIGHT blueE,.VANGUARDS VA01709 POST OFFICE TELEPHONES AUSTIN A35 VAN 1 43,.SMART ROADSTER COUPE 2003 yellow et black MINICHAMPS 1 43,.VINTAGE DINKY TOYS MODEL No.51C ITALIA LINE REX PASSENGER LINER, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Wwii Us Navy Lcm(3) Landing Craft D-Day Normandy 1944 Kit TRUMPETER 1 35 TR00347,.Schuco 1 43 Opel Speedster 'yellow-yellow',.Herpa - MAN TGS LX Euro 6 Kempf Stöffel-Liner Holcim (CH) - Nr. 306171 - 1 87,.MODELLISMO NAVALE AMATI ENDEAVOUR CON ATTREZZI SCATOLA DI MONTAGGIO,. Id., p 923.

goldEN STAR NAVE IN LEGNO MONTATA A MANO BRIGANTINO INGLESE DEL 1770 VERNICIATA,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Renault 4 1967 Gendarmerie NOREV,DetailCars 1 43 - Alfa Romeo Giulietta Spyder van 1958 - bluee,.VINTAGE MATCHBOX LESNEY SUPERFAST TP-6 Toe Joe & Volkswagen VW 1500 Beetle, MOC,.Htf STAR WARS Starships SPEEDER BIKE 2017 HOT WHEELS Flight Stand New F Japan,.Greenlight 86511 1941 Lincoln Continental 1 43 Scale w Bullet Hole Damage CHASE,.1 700 Richelieu battleship post 1943 detail set,.MINICHAMPS F1 1 43 Scale - 430970004 WILLIAMS RENAULT FW19 RENAULT GERMAN DRIVER,.Mercury 1951 Red, Tuning, Model Car 1 24 JADA TOYS,. The parties FERRARI 166 MM 1948 - 1953 Prova 1 43 ART Model ART001 Box,.

MGB CABRIOLET - 1962 - RED 940131030 Maxichamps Minichamps 1 43 New ,.EFE 1 76 Scale 20604DL Plaxton Pointer Dennis Dart Yorkshire Terrier,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, ATLAS EDITIONS WORLD OF STOBART 1 22 SCALE SCANIA 114L 340-RV14 BOXED rs267,; 1 43 TRAX TR38D 1962 XL Falcon Squire Wagon - Waratah Red, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Wiking 1 87 LAGERRÄUMUNG LKW (M580),.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Fiat Abarth 595 SS 1964 White Red 1 43 Model 24506 VITESSE,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)CITROEN DS19 DS 19 BROWN TOP 1956 1 43 -WITH BOX-,.LGB G Scale 1 24 1936 Bugatti Atlantic Detailed Burago Diecast Vintage Car 22092,.Minichamps Porsche 911 GT3 - Mattheus 2005 - A+ A+,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Kaden 1 43 - Skoda Octavia greene,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Busch 51503 - 1 87 H0 Ifa G5 Lkw (Ohne Dachluke) - Nva (Ddr) - Neu,.Corgi Detail 1 43 Scale - ART.263 VW CONCEPT 1 1994 92926,.Dodge Charger R t 1968 Fast & Furious 7 Satin Metal 1 24 Model JADA TOYS,.Abrex 1 43 - Skoda Roomster,.Hot Wheels 2018 Super Treasure Hunt Indy 500 Oval (1) + (1) ZAMAC (Lot of 2) NEW,. The ScottsdaleEaglemoss 1 1100 Nelson-class Battleship Royal Navy, HMS nelson 1931 EMGC34,Nave BArca kit legno Mantua Model AMERIGO VESPUCCI scala 1 100,.Siku Super 6213 00702 Bugatti-Set 3, Limited Edition Irland & Neuseeland ca.1 55,. Id.,Miss Matchbox Outfit DG204 Day Out neuwertig auf Karte,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Hot Wheels Exclusive Vehicle Batmobile 1.18 scale model 2004 Metal Collection,; VANGUARDS 1 43 VA33002 MAIDSTONE & DISTRICT FORD 300E THAMES VAN,IXO Chevrolet Corsa (1993) in red 1 43 NEU PC-Vitrine,.Minichamps 1 43 NSU RO 80 derbyred II 1967 940015402 - Maxichamps,. The ScottsdaleWwi Battleship Sms Koenig Kit REVELL 1 700 RV05157,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Ford Hot Rod Modell von Maisto yellow Yellow A 1929 Maßstab 1 24,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; N 2 Norev - Alfa Romeo Giulietta Sprint-porsche carrera 1500-- SCALA 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, AHC 1 43 - Opel Kadett Combo greene,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, DECAL BMW M3 J.BOSCH YPRES 24 HOURS R. 1989 8th (08),; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Bmw Promo 1 43 BMW 3 series Congreenible champagne,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Herpa 303231 MB Actros Streamspace 2.3 Lowliner Rungen SZ orange in OVP (Mo4582), (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, MATCHBOX AMERICAN IRON CRUISE '95 CHEVY PANEL VAN NEW, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Renault Clio Maxi Test Car (yellow black) 1995,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMatchbox SF Nr. 26C Site Dumper yellow & red blackes Chassis top in Box,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, FORCES OF VALOR 1 700 NAVE PORTAEREI BRITISH HMS ARK ROYAL ART 861009A,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheBoS-Models Land Rover Range Rover Sport - weiss - 2013 - 1 87,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Herpa 529303 - 1 500 Airbus A330-200 - Iberia - Neu,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Matchbox Models Of Yesteryear Y-6 - 1913 Cadillac - gold,Revell USS United States Scatola di Montaggio,.MIB Matchbox Models of Yesteryear 1971 Dodge Challenger NIB 1 43 YMC 12,.1 50 CORGI SIMON DENNIS HYDRAULIC PLATFORM WEST GLAMORGAN FIRE SERVICE 97392,. The HuygheCorgi Toys 1 43 - Ford Thames Caravan Camping Car,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheJapanese Navy Destroyer Hatsuharu 1933 1 700 ( Aoshima ),.

1 43 Ford Transit 2000 Bus Wine Red Red Dealer Edition - Minichamps,.HOT WHEELS TEAM TRANSPORT PORSCHE 962 FLEET FLYER,.

ALFA ROMEO 2300 100x100 ALFA x CENT'ANNI 1910-2010 Brumm S1036,.IXO 24 HEURES DU MANS SIMCA ABARTH 1300 DIECAST ECHELLE 1 43 NEU OVP,. Nonetheless, on the facts of POM CAM-CITERNE N° 97 DE FORET MER SUR GMC CAB DOUBLE LIMOGES,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 24 Jada - BTM 1970 Plymouth Road Runner - Purple,.1 87 Brekina Ikarus 255.71 Reisebus white blue TD 59651,.

For example, in Partridge,Maisto 1 24 2015 FORD MUSTANG GT Assembly DIY Racing Car Toy Diecast MODEL KITS,. In Jorgensen, supra,MINICHAMPS 400 120334 & 120574 ALFA ROMEO model car bluee & white 1 43rd scale,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Barque en bois-grand modèle-Indien-Sisley par Berodesign-33 cm,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Franklin Mint 1 24 1935 Mercedes Benz 500K Special Roadster A666 Guter Zustand,. That is the same situation in this case.IXO CITROËN XSARA RALLYE DE FRANCE 2010 DIECAST METAL ECHELLE 1 43 NEUF OVP,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.BREKINA 56018 Setra S 6 Bus green helfenbain HO 1 87 NUOVO,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Mercedes Actros Semi Low Loader JCB 1-76 scale new 76MB010,.NEPTUN 1 1250 Jap. Flugzeugträger ZUIKAKU N 1213a,.Atlas 1 43 Saab 96 V4 1969 Alloy car model,.

CORAZZATA YAMATO DE AGOSTINI 1 250 JAPANESE BATTLESHIP MODEL LEGNO E METALLO,.