DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE CASE CASE 1940 FORD PANEL VAN TEXACO RED TEXACO 0606R 1 18 c91715

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE CASE CASE 1940 FORD PANEL VAN TEXACO RED TEXACO 0606R 1 18 c91715
Corgi 263 - Captain America Jetmobile,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals OM43406 Paxton Beaver 2 Trent Buses LTD 0002 of 5000,.V 1 64 KYOSHO MATTEL 2011 FERRARI 458 ITALIA GT2 YELLOW MINT BOXED,.BORGWARD ISABELLA COMBI 1958 red MINICHAMPS 1 43,.1949 Cadillac Coupe Deville 1 18 Diecast Model Road Legends,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Atlas Editions 1 76 Scale 4 649 106 - MAN TGX XXL Curtainside Mollie Ann H023,.DV6852 ELIGOR 1 43 DACIA LOGAN CUP SHOW CAR 2006 Ref 7711420096 ETAT NEUF,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.NOREV 1 43 - MG XPOWER SV-R - MG-X POWER - IN ORIGINAL BOX,.Corgi Mini Set Classic Acropolis Land Rover Rally,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Presidential Series 2001 Cadillac Deville Presidential Limousine Diecast Car,.Ca. 1 12 Blech Handarbeitsmodell Panzerwagen 1. Weltkrieg TOP Deko,.Ferrari 365 GTB 4 Daytona Bj. 1968 18 Hot Wheels OVP, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

1950's Dinky Caravan Travel Trailer, bluee & White, Nice Original,.Solido 8048 Renault 4 CV Maroon 1 18 EXELLENT OHNE BOX RARE ,.Hot Wheels Ryura LX Modellauto model car ORIGINAL NEU & OVP,.PONT ÉLEVATEUR TWO POST LIFT GMP 1 43 REF 14306,.

Hand Built BD Mini Auto Collection Chevy Nomad in Red on 1 43,.2011 Pagani Huayra red 1 18 Motor Max 79160,.BBURAGO 1 24 - FIAT 131 ABARTH RALLY NO= 0145 - CAR IN VERY GOOD CONDITION,.GREENLIGHT 1 18 THE WALKING DEAD FORD CROWN VICTORIA POLICE INTERCEPTOR 12957,.Redline Hotwheels Purple 1969 Classic Ford Coupe oc8657,.

Ixo model GTM043 MASERATI MC12 n.16 RED BULL 1 43 Modellino,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.CORGI - 58701 FORD TRANSIT TIPPER - HIGHWAY SERVICES,.Minichamps F1 1 43 Scale - 530044305 McLAREN MERCEDES D.COULTHARD,.2003 Dodge Viper SRT-10 Cabrio red Metalizado 1 18 Maisto 31632,BMW 315 1 blue black 1 43 Schuco neu & OVP 2322,.THE HOBBY SHOP SERIES 1, SET OF 6 CARS 1 64 DIECAST MODELS BY GREENLIGHT 97010,.

Lesney Matchbox Hydraulic Excavator no 24 MIB,.Jada 1969 Chevrolet Chevelle SS 1 24 Scale new in box 2005 release,.GAte 1 18 - VOLKSWAGEN NEW BEETLE,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Gode 1 43 Scale Model Car 452.003.7 - F1 Ferrari 412 T2 - Gerhard Berger,.

Onyx Porsche 911 GT3R 2000 Maury-Laribière Chauvin Zadra 24h LM (HB),. We agree in part.

Matchbox Ford Model A Nº Y-21 Models of Yesterday Lesney Made in England BOX,.Fiat X1 9 1974 bluee modelcar 940121661 Maxichamps 1 43,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Corgi Junior PRE PRO COLOUR Sample Corvette MINT Boxed Yellow,.Renault Norev Reinastella modèle RM2 1929 - 4 Doors - Collectible Diecast scale,.NB MEDAILLIER FRANKLIN MINT MERCEDES BENZ 300 SL 1954 1 24 éme,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Leader Résine 1 43 - Peugeot 404 Cabriolet whitehe,.1 43 KIT MAZDA 323 TURBO CAMEL SUNSTROM RALLY SVEZIA 1989,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Herpa 932370 DAF XF SSC Kühlkoffersattelzug,; Scarce Minichamps 430 947400 Ferrari 333 SP 1994 IMSA-WSC Presentation in Red,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Ixo model LMC077 FERRARI BB 512LM n.76 LM 1980 1 43 Modellino,.HOT WHEELS ENTERTAINMENT THE MUPPETS SPONGE BOB 1 64 NEW CASE G 12CT Y0758-999G,SAUBER F1 TEAM FERRARI C31 - SERGIO PEREZ - 2012 410120015 Minichamps 1 43 NEW ,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Aoshima Bunka kyouzaisya 1 24 BEEMAX Series No.21 Audi Sports Quattro S1 E2 1986,.

Jaques Ferrari Dino Super Chocolat 1 43 Scale Made in Spain Play Worn Condition,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.SIMCA ARONDE MESSAGERE crème break 1 43,.Fiat 500 L hellgrey, Modellauto 1 18 Solido,.BROOKLIN MODELS 17 STUDEBAKER CHAMPION STARLIGHT COUPE 1952,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Media Kit FIA Formula 1 Grande Prêmio Marlbgold do Brasil 1999,; Mattel Hot Wheels BLOWN CAMARO Z-28 MOC, 1986,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Ltd Edn Corgi Vanguards 1 43 VA11000 Ford Escort Mk3 RS1600i Datapost Untouched,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE CASE CASE 1940 FORD PANEL VAN TEXACO RED TEXACO 0606R 1 18 c91715DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE CASE CASE 1940 FORD PANEL VAN TEXACO RED TEXACO 0606R 1 18 c91715DIECAST CAR & DISPLAY CASE CASE CASE 1940 FORD PANEL VAN TEXACO RED TEXACO 0606R 1 18 c91715

Neo 1 43 Opel Steinmetz Commodore B,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

Bentley Continental GT Congreenible Remote Control Car,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Aston Martin ONE-77 1 18 scale (EXCELLENT CONDITION),

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Fiat 500 L Sport 1960 White Red 1 18 Model 1801401 SOLIDO,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Bburago 1 18 Lamborghini Huracan LP610-4 Police Polizia Model bluee 18 - 11041,.PEUGEOT 403 BREAK VITRE GENDARMERIE LEADER 140112,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.1 43 BMW M1 PROCAR D. Pironi by MINICHAMPS,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Vintage - Peugeot 104 Auto-Ecole de the Mairie - 1 43 Solido Ref. 12 B,.

1 64 HURACAN LB 610 Fluorescent Mett bluee (Resin) LIBERTY WALK LB PERFORMANCE,.Mercedes-Benz AMG GT S Coupe Solar Beam yellow Ab 2014 1 18 Maisto Modell Auto m..,.RED BARON 1969 Redline Hot Wheels,.Kobelco Diecast Hydraulic Excavator 1 50 Geospec Acera SK330-8 Construction Mode,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.CORGI BEATLES COLLECTION. BEDFORD VAL MAGICAL MYSTERY TOUR BUS .1997. NEW BOXED,.

Vintage Gama Porsche 911 Rallye with decals MIB OVP W.Germany 1970's 1 43,.1 43 BMW 635 CSi Gr.A BUTHURST 1984 JPS by SPARK,.Hot wheels Crew’s choice lot of 6 NASCAR cars Limited edition highly detailed,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Brumm 1 43 Scale Metal Model - R18 RENAULT GP 3B HP 90 CORSA 1906,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Matchbox Appx 1 43 Scale Diecast YS-9 - 1936 Leyland Club Fire Engine FK-7,.Corgi Toys 9032, Renault 1910, Mint in Box ab556,.Kembel Mercedes Benz O405 Bogestra,.Matchbox Lesney Feuerwehrauto ,.F1 FERRARI F1-2000 RUBENS BARRICHELLO HOT WHEELS 1 18 NEUVE,.

Vanguards 1 43 VA08500 Wolseley Six Cosmic bluee metallic, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.AMC Rebel 1970 black, Modellauto 1 18 Yat Ming,.Fast & Furious - Chevrolet Chevelle + Nissan Skyline, Model Car 1 43 Greenlight,. The PartridgeJapan Release Coca-Cola Set of 3 Cars Limited Edition to 9,600 pieces Worldwide,.CORGI 222 RENAULT FLORIDE NEAR MINT,.Herpa 1 87 MAN TG 460 A Hängerzug Abrollmulden Power Comfort Safety OVP,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, 1 18 Porsche 911 2.4 LS in street red by Eagle, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Gama mini - Vintage Metal Model - 9850 - Opel Kadett Coupe - 1 45 (Gama 9),Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Norev Renault Dauphine 1958 1 43 Feret Monraisse 1st Rallye Monte-Carlo,.TSM -LOLA T810 NISSAN FAIRLADY Z COCA COLA 1 43rd HIGH DETAIL RESIN TSM09436,PartridgeOPEL KAPITAN TAXI 1951 MINICHAMPS 1 43,.New 1 43 Minichamps BMW M3 DTT 1994 Team Melkus M.Volk 430942215,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, DV6591 UH UNIVERSAL HOBBIES RENAULT CLIO SPORT V6 MILLENIUM 7711212405 1 43, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Sky Marks SK3734 BUS MAN CITTA' DI LIONE 1 50 Modellino,; ANTIQUE BVRT MINI COOPER CHROME COOL COLOR VITA-MINI RHD RACING INTERIOR CORGI,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, 1969 Dodge Ladegerät R T, Maisto Car Model 1 25, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Franklin Mint 1938 Jaguar SS 100, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeMatchbox Lesney No.7 Horse Drawn Milk Float,.

UhhHotwheels 2018 Super Hunts Nissan Skyline 2000 GTR Factory sealed,.1 18 Mercedes A KLASSE 4 DOORS GREEN METALLIC NEW IN DEALER BOX Maisto, Clarke's negligent act.Matchbox b - Caterpillar Tractor - Yellow - Box A,.Piccolo Post Museums Edition 2x Mercedes-Benz 170 V Postauto Schuco 87-04 NEU&OV,.IXO ALTAYA 1 18 VOLKSWAGEN POLO WRC S.OGIER J.INGRASSIA SWEDEN RALLY 2013,.

Diecast Minichamps 1 43 BMW 318i ADAC TW Cup 1994 Surer Mint on Display,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ixo model RAC204 BMW M 3 E 30 N.11 MACAU 1989 1 43 Modellino,PAZ MINIATURES AUTOBUS SOVIET BUS 672M EAST EUROPE DIECAST ECHELLE 1 43 NEW OVP,. In Noska,RENAULT FLORIDE HARD TOP NOREV V4395 1 43,.Ebbro 1 20 Team Lotus Type 88 1981 F-1 No.011 Scale Model Kit,.Minichamps Mercedes-Benz Vaneo 1 43 Brillantsilver (JS),.Kyosho 1 64 458 Italia Gt2 Redassembled, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Dinky supertoys 689 Medium Artillery Tractor In Original Box,.Dinky Toys F n° 543 Renault Floride en boîte,.1 36 Aston Martin DB10 - James Bond Spectre Corgi CC08002,.Edison Military Army 1 43 - SDKFZ 251 Stuka zu Fuss Germany 1944,. Id., p 923.

Car CITROEN C5 Tourer 2011 SMUR of Drill NOREV 1 43,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, CORGI CC13204 DAF XF SPACE CAB CURTAINSIDE TRAILER - DE RIJKE 1 50 - NMIB,1 150 Kyosho Diecast bus Mitsubishi Fuso Aero Ace (N scale) Airport liner,.Revell 08463 Lloyd Alexander bluegrey - Dach white 1 18,.gold Leaf Designs - Nostalgic Wind-Up Tin Toy - Motorcycle,.MERCEDES CLASSE C 250 COUPE 2011 black NOREV 1 43,.1 18 Auto World LEGENDS of the QUARTER MILE L.A. HOOKER Funny Car,.HERPA (242-D) UNIC – Kofferzug „IVECO Service“ – Nr. 810 420,.Norev Renault Megane RS Test Version GP Monaco 2017 1 43 517727,. The parties Porsche 911 930 G-Modell Turbo brown Coupe 1974-1989 1 43 Minichamps Maxichamp..,.

Nissan 350Z 1 43 J- Collection,.Citroen DS 3, blue-Metallic, 2016, NOREV 1 43,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Hot Wheels 32nd Convention 65 Mercury Comet Cyclone Gasser,; Herpa HO 186018 Scania Küppers Kölsch Brauerei Edition 1997 H 484 Gebraucht OVP, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Smart ForTwo Cabrio A453 orange mit black Ab 2015 1 43 Norev Modell Auto mit..,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Lot of 2 Vintage Barclay Metal Police car 1930's,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 87 Schuco Volkswagen VW T2A T2 Camping Bus Model,.AUTOart Lamborghini Gallardo LP5704 1 43 54642,.2008 Porsche 911 Turbo Cabriolet black Metalizado 1 18 Motor Max 73183BK,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,IXO McLaren M6B GT 1969 (orange) 1 43 PR0257,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.MAJORETTE TOYOTA CgoldLLA ALTIS THAI TAXI LIMITED EDITION CAR MODEL SET OF 6,.OLD-CARS FIAT IVECO DAILY - POMPIERS AMBULANCE 1 43 NEAR MINT,.Welly NEX 1 24 Scale 24063W - 2015 Ford F-150 Regular Cab - bluee,.1 40 Wiking VW T1 Kasten Deutsche Bundespost 83-40,.NEW 1982 Vintage Batman ✧ BATBIKE ✧ DC Comics Corgi Juniors MOC,. The Scottsdale2016 Matchbox Jeep Anniversary Edition Set of 8 Cars,BURAGO - FIAT TIPO POLIZIA - 1 43 - MIB,.LAMBORGHINI GALLARD LP 560 4 AUTOart blue 1 43,. Id.,Hot Wheels Fire-Eater On Flying colors Card HK Base.,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, SPARK Venturi 500 LM P. Witmeur S2277,; Johnny Lightning SF008A 1 64 Street Freaks Release 2A (6),Autoart Volkswagen Beetle 1 64 Minicar,.AHC Pilen 1 43 - Nissan Maxima Red,. The Scottsdale1 43 UNIQUE DSM 1998 CATERHAM SUPER SEVEN ROADSPORT 1.8 CLAMSHELL N NEO N SPARK,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, THE WALKING DEAD FORD CROWN POLICE MODEL CAR 1 43 SCALE GREENLIGHT 86504 K8,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Matchbox Moko Lesney King Size K15 Merryweather Fire Engine Boxed,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, ALFA ROMEO 33 MAGGIORELLI TOBY CAMP EUROPEO TURISMO 1991 PEGO PG1006 1 43,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, ALEZAN 1 43 JAGUAR XJS STATION CAR ARDEN M. DUCLEUX EN BOITE,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, RexToys 1 43 - Ford 35 Type 48 Van Texaco,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Best of Modern Muscle Cars - Set 42 - Set of Three 1 24 Scale Diecast Model Cars, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Citroen DS3 Cabriolet 2012 NEW Norev 1 18, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Maserati 3200 GT 1998 on a Scale of 1 18 MODEL CAR COUPE FROM BURAGO BOXED,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeMercedes GLA (X 156) Mopf Spark 1 43 B66960541 Miniature,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Borgward BO 4000 (1952) 1 43 Ixo BUS014,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheHerpa LKW Scania CS 20 Topl Aerop. Ga-KSZ Herbert Köhler Transporte 927772,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Ebbro 44295 Honda Civic Type R FD2 (purple) 1 43 scale,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,PORSCHE 935 WATKINS GLEN 1976 EBBRO Martini,Scania 142 Hauber 6x4 Planen-Sattelzug Polar Express 1 87 Herpa 307512 Finnland,.Brumm BM0385C PORSCHE 917 1975 J.GROSSBAD 1 43 Modellino,.Jaguar XKR GT3 Street 2008 orange, Modellauto 1 43 Minichamps,. The HuygheMATCHBOX VW VOLKSWAGEN KARMANN GHIA Modellauto ORIGINAL NEU & OVP,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMAISTO 1 18 36115 JEEP WRANGLER RUBICON BRUSH FIRE UNIT,.

1960s.Matchbox.Lesney.,56 Fiat 1500 .BPW.MINT IN BOX.original,.LOTUS 78 GP DE BELGIQUE 1977 G. NILSSON QUARTZO 4088 1 43,.

1 43 Diecast MINICHAMPS 2013 Infiniti Red Bull Racing RB9 S.Vettell 410 131201,.Ixo 1 43 Scale RAM552 - Ford Fiesta RS WRC - Finland 2013,. Nonetheless, on the facts of MAJORETTE - MINI COOPER DE 1964 - red ET blackE - 1 18 - REF 4402 - NEUVE -,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeMattel Hot Wheels The Hot Ones SCIENCE FRICTION MOC, 1981,.Herpa 1 87 090865 MB SK94 WLF Katastrophenschutz FW Düsseldorf OVP (RB9312),.

For example, in Partridge,DINKY toys RECONNAISSANCE vehicle rare USA colours cat No 152b,. In Jorgensen, supra,Lesney Matchbox Superfast 21 Renault 5 Yellow Body AMBER Window Boxed,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Norev NV270563 FORD CAPRI S 1986 orange 1 43 Modellino,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,CITRON DS 19 POLICE DE PARIS 1960 - 1 43 VITESSE,. That is the same situation in this case.U H Renault Magnum & C S Trailer- Hume Transport,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Schuco Hanomag Kommissbred Taxi,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Hot Wheels Redline Porsche 911 Yellow 1974 Hong Kong. Light Play,.Hot Wheels Buzz Off On Flying colors Card HK Base.,.Abrex AB605TF SKODA FABIA III R5 N.33 9th RALLY RACC CATALUNYA 2016 TIDEM.-ANDER,.

SHARP JAPAN KIT A4-500 VW VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE KAFER YELLOW MINT BOXED,.