Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Schuco Micro Racer 1047 Porsche 356 B red Vintage 60er Jahre,.Acura NSX 2017 (LHD) - nouvelle bluee pearl - TSM-Model - 1 43 - TSM164387,.Kings Models 1 43 1951 Ferrari 375 French GP Test Luigi Villoresi,.SQUIRE 1 1 2 LITRE 1934 AUTO TORQUE ATC 1 43,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Hi Story 1 24 Mazda Roadster RF 2016 Snowflake White Pearl Mica Completed,.1981 BMW M1 France Zol`Auto 24H Le Mans Rousselot Servanin 1 18 Minichamps,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.1 18 Ertl Mopar Champions Series Roy Hill Plymouth Duster Rare Nip,.LAST RARE NEW - WESTERN Distributing Transportation - Lonestar 32626 - 1 64 DCP,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Four Wheel Models 1 43 Scale FWAM9 -1957 Aston Martin DB Mk3 D Head Open - Red,.1 18 Ford Escort Mk1 Avo Rally Milk Minichamps model car,.Kyosho Original 1 18 Lamborghini Diablo GT orange Pearl KSR18507OR W T japan, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
1968 Mustang Hot Wheels Toy Car White and bluee,.Nissan Juke R 2.0 2016 Red AUTOART 1 18 AA77457,.Cardboard model redhmans Williams Renault FW19 1997 Villeneuve (235 cm ),.2013 Aston Martin Vantage V12 GT3 Plain Body White White 1 18 Autoart,.
Alfa Romeo 6C 2500S Berlinetta Touring maroon 1939 1 18 Cult Scale Models,.Hot Wheels Elite 1 18 Scale Diecast - N2051 Ferrari 360 Modena red Red,.Magirus Deutz O6500 Autobus 1954 Green Ivory Red Schuco 1 43 SH8937 Model,.Brand Porsche 962C 9 Ignition Model,.Scarce Dinky toys 211 Triumph TR7 Sports Car in Turquoise Mint & Original,.
1 12 CMR Porsche 911 (964) Turbo S Lightweight 1993 yellow,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Volkswagen K70 1970 BoS Models 1 18 BOS148,.Schuco SH0068 BMW 850i CABRIO RED 1 18 Modellino,.NOREV 2013 MERCEDES BENZ CLA (C117) Red (DEALER) 1 18 RARE ,MINIMARQUE 1 43 GRB96B - 1970 MG MIDGET - ROOF UP - orange - 1 OF 50 ONLY,.ABC BRIANZA FERRARI 375MM BERLINETTA COMPETIZIONE - 1 43 - EXCELLENT - 27 45,.
TEKNO 63442 MAN TGX 33.480 TRACTX4 + SEMI PLATEAU 3 AXES H.N KRANE ,.Auto art Autoart 53602 Jaguar XJR White perfect mint in box 1 43 OVP Scarce,.Minichamps DP 1 12 Scale Kawasaki 900 Z1 Super 4 1973 Yellow Figure,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
BBR Models Ferrari Dino 246 GTS Nera Modellino,.
FYP 1 43 1985 Ferrari Mondial Cabriolet Resin Handmade Model Car,. We agree in part.
Maserati A6 Gcs Street Version 1953 Red Tecnomodel 1 18 TM18-44B Model,.Lamborghini Hurcan Gt3 (Bianco Isis White) 2015 AUTOART 1 18 AA81527 Model,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Corgi Toys 342 Ford Capri CI5 The Professionals in O-Box,.Kings Models 1 43 1954 Ferrari 375 TWS WECC Trophy Snetterton Peter Collins,.AUTOART 74673 1 18 LAMBORGHINI AVENTADOR J RED SUPERCAR DIECAST,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Subaru BRZ GT 1 18 Kyosho KSR18027BL,.Kings Models 1 43 1951 Ferrari 375 San Remo GP Luigi Villoresi,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, New FUJI Speedway 50th Anniversary Eblo 1 43 Scale 1989 Gratian Final Set Japan,; Corgi Toys 302 M.G.A. Sports Car red Spun hubs near mint in box what a beauty,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Triple9 1 18 Scale Diecast - T9-1800162 MG A ex182 Roadster Le Mans,.LANSDOWNE LDM.40 1960 AUSTIN GIPSY LONG WHELL BASE HARD TOP 1 43 WHITE METAL,Otto 1 18 Scale resin - OT651 Opel Calibra Turbo 4x4 Metallic green (Vauxhall),. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Vintage Burago 1 14 Diecast F1 Model - 2101 - Ferrari 312 T2,.
1932 Ford Five Ventana Liberación N° 1 lemon cosmic Hot Rod ACME,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.MINICHAMPS - 1 18 - DELAHAYE TYPE 145 V12 COUPé - 1937 - 107116120,.Matchbox Popeye‘s Olive Oil blueto Die-Cast Metal Car 1980 King 2 Cars,.VAN X VW Volkswagen T6 Premium 2 x Side Window, 1 x Barndoor Curtain Van-X VAN-X,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Matchbox 2001 Series 1 - 75 Full Set of Cars in the Box,; Triple 9 1 18 Scale Diecast T9-1800192 - Honda S800 - White,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, CB MODELLI ALFA ROMEO ROMEO 2 AMBULANZA V.V.F.F. VIGILI DEL FUOCO 1 43,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
PORSCHE 919 Hybrid HY Le Mans 2017 Lotterer Jani Tandy DMG Mori Spark 1 18,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 110 037212 Mercedes Benz 300 SL 1955 Cream,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Limited To 1000 1 43 Look Smart Ferrari 412T2 Es Special Order,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
ZIL 164, olive, 1 43, Start Scale Models,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Schuco 3015 MERCEDES-BENZ L6600+ TRAILER 1 43 Modellino,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 530 971890 McLaren MP4 12 Testcar D. Coulthard,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Ignition model 1 43 Porsche 962C OMURON JSPC 1989 V. Schppan IG0512 NEW,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Revell 08432 NSU 1000 Prinz TT Cup R. Podak mit Zertifikat, 1 18, OVP, K011,.
Matchbox RW 55B Fairlane Police Car rare grobe blacke Räder 20 Profil mit Box,.Vintage Schuco 1079 Dynamo-Lotus Remote Controlled NM O B Working,.WOW EXTREMELY RARE Man F8 Pritschenwagen 1953 Grreen Munchen 1 43 Minichamps-860,.ALERTE 1 43 MERCEDES UNIMOG U20 CCF GIMAEX MARSEILLE limitée 100 pieces 0044,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.BBR BBRC1826C Ferrari 250 P Le Mans 1963 car limited 99 pcs 1 18,.
Chevrolet Corvette Z06 BBR 1 18 BBRP1893S Model,.JAPAN Renaut F1 Teh Digtal Systemxsx,.REI SCHUCO BRAZIL OPEL MANTA GTE B927,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Autoart Lamborghini Murcielago Concept Car,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Buses France - MAP 43 - 1955 FLOIRAT Y 55,.CMR 1 18 Ferrari 275 GTB Le Mans 1966 - Noblet Dubois,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale - 155 808608 Ford Capri 3.0S Bastos SPA 1979,.Model Road Replicas 1 43 Scale - Vauxhall Victor F Type - Met Lt Green,.Kyosho original 1 64 Nissan Fairlady Z White,.
MINIMARQUE 1 43 GRB101B - 1967 AUSTIN HEALEY SPRITE - BR GREEN - ROOF OPEN, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.ERTL INTERNATIONAL PAY HAULER, STUNNING EXAMPLE, APPEARS UNOPENED FROM NEW MODEL,.Minimarque 43 1 43 Scale Model Car 7918 - Rover 14 - bluee,. The PartridgeBrooklin Models 1 43 Scale BRK4 - 1937 Chevrolet Coupe - Green,.BMW e82 1er M-Coupe 2011 white modelcar 110020022 Minichamps 1 18,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 110 067022 Porsche 911 GT3 2017 orange,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Franklin Mint B11SD67 1992 Rolls-Royce Corniche IV, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.NZG MODELLE 440 O&K L651 DRAG-LINE - RED 1 50 - VERY GOOD CONDITION,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Rialto Models 1 43 Scale Model Car R7219W - 1952 MG-TD Bertone - White,.Ferrari 488 Challenge Bianco Avus 100 without Livery 1 43 - LS476E Looksmart,PartridgeHOT WHEELS 1983 SPLIT WINDOW ’63 REAL RIDERS W WHITE HUBS INTL CARD W+,.1971 Dodge Charger R-T 426 HEMI Metallic gold 1 18 Auto World AMM1086,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 822901 - BMW M1 Kurt Konig DRT Wunstorf 1982, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, SPARK Porsche 911 RSR C. Ried K. Al Qubaisi K. Bachler LMGTE AM Le Mans 2015,; Märklin 1101 LKW Geldtransporter Bayerischer Rundfunkt Metall- Tin Plate in OVP,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Ignition Model 1 43 Nissan Skyline 2000 Gt-el C211 White Ig0326 Finished Produ, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Autoart 81357 - 1 18 Lamborghini Gallardo Gt3 Fl2 - Metallic orange - Neu, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1958 Plymouth Fury Christine Dirty Version 1 18 Auto World AWSS119,.
AUTOBUS RENAULT TN4F Kit monté,.AUTOart 1 18 Porsche RWB 993 Green Gun Metal Wheel Composite Model 78151 F S, Clarke's negligent act.MAZ 537 Militaire PREMIUM - PR 47049 - Echelle 1 43 NEWS AOUT 2018,.Minichamps 1 18 Scale 155 811114 - Audi Quattro Winner Rallye Sanremo '81,.Spark 6Th Australian Gp 2015 Red Bull Rb11 Renault,.
Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 80432454782 BMW 3.0 CSL Hommage R,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, F1 WILLIAMS Mercedes FW37 GP Abu Dhabi 2015 Bottas Rexona NEW Minichamps 1 18,New Blago 1 18 scale Ferrari 458 Special Red BR-18-16002 Model car Japan,. In Noska,1 18 Guiloy top Line coll. 68501 - Hispano Suiza HS21 GTS red RARITÄT,.Spark Model Porsche 911 GT3 RSR (997) IMSA 1 18 18S149,.LADA 1200 VAZ 2101- Volkspolizei - 1 43 - CLC131 - IXO,.IMC 33-0066 Terex MB Actros 2 Bigspace 8x4 + 6achs Nooteboom 1 50 NEU + OVP, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Ixo Moc064 Mclaren F1 Gtr 1996 Management No.824,.ISCALE 1 18 Scale 118006 Mercedes Race Transporter 'The bluee Wonder',.PATHFINDER MODELS PFM 34 VAUXHALL HB VIVA 1968,.Vintage - AÉROGLISSEUR SRN6 - Dinky toys 290 Mint en boîte,. Id., p 923.
71147 AUTOart 1 18 Chevrolet Corvette 1958 White,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Kaiser Henry J Gasser (orange) Missing Link (1951),U.S. Model Mint 1 43 Scale US27 - 1950 Studebaker Semi Tractor - Chereoke Red,.Autoart 78045 - 1 18 Porsche Carrera Gt - White - Neu,.1974 Opel Ascona A Irmscher Tuning Rallye WM RAC Rallye Berger 18 by BoS,.Ferrari J50 Spider 2016 red Tristrato Red Met BBR 1 43 BBRC208i Model,.Hot Wheels - What-4 - 1971 - Redline - Magenta - HK - Excellent - Shiny - Keeper,.Paragon 1 18 Scale Diecast - PA-98331 Jaguar Lightweight E-Type Atkins 1963,.LOOKSMART FERRARI 488GTB GENEVA MOTORSHOW 2015 VINACCIA LS446F 1 43,. The parties Citroen SM 1971 Espace by Heuliez, metallic bluee, 1 43, Neo,.
Bentley Continental Gt 2008 Minichamps 1 18 100139620 Model Diecast,.Audi Sport Quattro Safari Rally 1984 Blomqvist 1 18 Otto Mobile OT253 NEW,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Minichamps 430 058001 Vw Beetle Red,; Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 F-Modell white blue MInichamps Modellauto 1 18, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Autoart 1 18 Scale Diecast - 80530 BMW M3 GTR Nurburgring 2005 Plain Red,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Matchbox series A Lesney Product N° 1 - Road Roller with original rare box,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Lansdowne 1 43 Scale LDM29X - 1935 Triumph Vitesse Flow-Free - WMTC Turquoise,.BBR Ferrari SF70-H GP Australia 2017 1 43 BBRC199A,.1 43 Looksmart Ferrari LaFerrari Aperta in yellow Tristrato Leather Base LS462D,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,WSI SCANIA R(6) TOPLINE 6X2 SLEEPER SCALE 1 50,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.VOLKSWAGEN VW SHARAN brown 2010 1 18,.1 43 GMP 7683 Konstant Hot Spl. 3-car set. Dirt, Midget & Sprint cars,.Matchbox SF Nr.64A MG 1100 met. blue auf rarer 1969 Blisterkarte,.Dinky Toys 956, Turntable Fire Escape, Mint in Box ab615,.CORGI 205 RILEY PATHFINDER SALOON - VN MINT in original BOX,. The ScottsdaleMinimarque 43 1 43 Scale Model Van 6C - 1936 Ford V8 Sedan Delivery Van - Ford,Tamiya Mini 4WD Limited Edition Junior Circuit Slope Section (orange) 95447,.New 1 18 Paragon Bentley Continental GT Coupe LHD 2016 gold Met 98232L,. Id.,Mercedes Benz Gla-Class Gla45 Amg 2016 Mountain Grey GT SPIRIT 1 18 B66960467 Mo,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MG Model 1 43 1966 Ferrari 330 P2 3 Daytona,; DV8235 ELIGOR 1 43 MERCEDES ACTROS MP4 SEMI TAUTLINER TPS LHERITIER 115263,Marklin No. 8015 Borgward Isabella. Light bluee. Very Nr. Mint & Boxed. Vintage,.Hot weels ferrari 1 18 f2007 m.schumacher,. The Scottsdale2015 Mazda 6 Sedan Atenza whiteo 1 18 Dorlop 1004W,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Matchbox SF Nr.17B The Londoner red Charmbourcy rares Werbemodell top in Box,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; Minichamps SAUBER BMW C24B HEIDFELD F1 TEST VALENCIA FEBRUARY 2006 1 18 New,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, (S) TEKNO DENMARK MG - 804,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Signed MR.NORMS 1964Dodge 330 HEMI GRAND SPAULDING1 18 Highway 61 Supercar Colle,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Porsche 911 SC Winner Rally Monte Carlo 1978 1 18 Spark 18S095,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, AUTOART MERCEDES BENZ AMG GT-S MATT GREY 1 18 New Item , (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Plymouth Fury Congreenible Cabriolet Open 1960 Oyster White SUNSTAR 1 18 SS5403 M, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Carousel 1 Bowes Seal Fast Special AJ Foyt 1961 Indianapolis 500 Winner 1 18,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeFiat 1100 Lusso Bianco blue 1 18 Model BOS MODEL,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, Faenza 43 1 43 1956 Ferrari 750 Monza Porto,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheMugen Civic Type R Milano Red Top Speed TRUE SCALE MINIATURES 1 18 TS0113 Miniat,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Kyosho 1 12 1 12 BMW Z4 Die Cast Model,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Ros RS80108 GRU WOLFFKRAN 4517 1 87 Modellino,Minichamps 1 18 Scale Diecast - 100 012104 BMW M3 GTR Street Yellow,.Almost Real Bill of Materials Bentley Team Absolute in GT3 Asia 43,.Somerville Models 1 43 Scale 131 - Austin 10 Cambridge - Maroon,. The HuygheTop Speed TS0057 1 18 PORSCHE 911 (934) TEAM PORSCHE KREMER RACING N 58 7th 24h,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheLOTUS ESPRIT Type 79 yellow Yellow 1 18 AUTOart 75301 voiture miniature,.
Otto 1 18 Scale Resin - OT532 Peugeot 405 T16 Grand Raid 1990,.Dealer Promo 1971 Chevrolet Monte Carlo gold Metallic 1 25th scale Grade 9,.
1 18 GMP, Chevrolet Camaro, Ron Fellows, AER,,.1 18 Spark Peugeot 905 EVO Winner LM 1992,. Nonetheless, on the facts of SOLIDO 139 MASERATI 3.5L 1 43 OLD ORIGINAL MADE IN FRANCE,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeBBR Ferrari 488 Challenge Finali Mondial Press Version 1 43 BBRC197A,.Rare Hotwheels GHOST BUSTERS Ecto-1 1 43 scale mint in box,.
For example, in Partridge,Hpi Mirage 1 43 Ford RS200 White from Japan,. In Jorgensen, supra,Kyosho Bmw 645Ci Cabriolet Die Cast,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.1 18 Jordan 198 D. Hill Pma Mini Champs Infinite Honda 1996 Demon Out Of Print,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,GLM Mercedes Benz W110 Binz Lang (red) 1 43 GLM205402,. That is the same situation in this case.1 43 Looksmart Lamborghini Gallardo Met. Yellow Leather Base Lim. 200 pcs LS115,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Minichamps 1 18 scale 150 057101 Volkswagen 1200 'Jeans Bug' 1983 white,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Acme 1 18 Scale A1805901 1963 Super Duty Pontiac Tempest Daytona 250,.1995 Batmobile Batman Forever black Mate 1 18 Hot Wheels Elite BCJ98,.Top Marques J&M Classis 1 43 Scale TM012 - 1929 Morris Minor - Brooklands Green,.
Scania Vabis (Van der Spek)Tekno,.