Pichon B4 Güllemixer (5M) Mixer 1 32 32 32 Model ROS60223 ROS e7e55c

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Pichon B4 Güllemixer (5M) Mixer 1 32 32 32 Model ROS60223 ROS e7e55c
1 16 Farmall 560 style Cub Tractor with Cultivator Spec Cast 2011 Summer Show,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Minichamps 1 12 Barry Sheene Suzuki XR 14 Assen GP 1975 122750006 No. 30,.Universal Hobbies 4249 1 32 Ford 6810 4WD Tractor - Generation III,.1 16 john deere 420 toy tractor with kbl kisc dey series,.INTERNATIONAL 606 TRACTOR COUNTRY CLASSICS by SCALE MODELS,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.Minichamps 1 12 Jose Luis Cardoso Yamaha YZR 500 Antena 3 D'Antin 500cc GP 2001,.Ertl John Deere 850K Diecast Dozer, 1 50-Scale,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Britains 43218 Kane Bale Trailer Low Loader 3 Axle with Lowering Ramp + Bales,.Caterpillar D 7 Planierraupe Limited von NZG 386 1 25 OVP,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Siku Vogel and Noot Semi-Mounted redary Plough 1 32,.Massey Ferguson TO35 with Ferguson F12 Baler Model Tractor Set J5379,.Yamaha YZR-M1 James Toseland MotoGP 2009 1 12 Model MINICHAMPS, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

DOEPKE ADAMS YELLOW 26 1 12 SCALE ROAD GRADER CIRCA 1950..,.Vintage Britains Massey Ferguson 595 Tractor 12cm In Length,.Ford F250 Crew Cab 6 Ft Bed - LIEBHERR - 1 50 - Sword SW1200LIEB,.ERTL INTERNATIONAL IH 966 SPECIAL EDITION TRACTOR 66 SERIES 1 16 SCALE DIECAST,.

Jungheinrich Fork Lift NZG Conrad 2994 Germany 1 25 DIECAST MODEL REPLICA NEW,.Moto Tamiya Ref.14065 SUZUKI KATANA GSX1100S. E=1 12 NUEVO,.SIKU NO.3653 1 32 MASSEY FERGUSON 5455 TRACTOR & LOADER FORKS Dicast Model Toy,.Siku 2053 Amazone Centaur Cultivator Disk Harrow Combination 1 32 Scale Boxed,.John Deere 6200 row crop tractor, Ertl 1 16,.

1 50 Camion ROMAN 8.135F - Built resin model,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.UH UNIVERSAL HOBBIES NEW HOLLAND BB9090 BALER PRESS POWER blueE CONVERSION,.1 16 ertl cast John Deere collection rare yellow no dings or scratches.,.Nzg - Metal Model - Demag H 485 S - HYDRAULIKBAGGER - OVP - 1 50 - (8.BM-29),CAT 1 50 Yellow AP600F Wheeled Asphalt Paver Diecast Model Vehicles Toy 85591,.Wiking 773 47 Claas Scorpion 7044 Teleskoplader 077347 1 32 NEU in OVP,.

KIDS GLOBE 1 32 SCALE COW BUILDING WITH MILKING PARLOUR 610495,.Brtains Home series No 8710 Shepherd set RARE New,.4894 Universal Hobbies Challenger MT685E DUALS tractor 1 32 scale BOXED,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Schluter Super 1250 V W Cabine 1968-73 Tractor 1 32 Model WEISE-TOYS,.

Caterpillar D10 Dozer w Cab, U-Blade & Ripper - 1 48 - CCM - Diecast - 2016,. We agree in part.

CAT 950H WHEEL LOADER 1 50 Scale Die-Cast Model Replica Caterpillar 55196,.Jamara Remote Controlled Crane Mercedes Arocs 1 20 Scale Model Toy Gift,.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1 16 John Deere 40 70 Tractors 50th Anniversary Collector Set New in Box by Ertl,.Brent 674 Red Grain Cart With Duals By SpecCast 1 64th Scale,.ROS 60221.2 Joskin Tetra Cap,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; UNIVERSAL HOBBIES KOMATSU PW148-10 WITH CLAM SHELL 1 50 SCALE 8100,.Siku Farmer 1951 Beetpflug, 1 32, OVP,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 25 Long Vintage Euclid The Pioneer Tractor and Earth Belly Dump Green Metal,; Komatsu SK1020 Skid Steer Loader Mini Ruspa 1 25 Model 40070 JOAL,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

1 16 white 4-270 toy tractor,.Schuco 06539 - Heinkel Roller 103 A 2 Baujahr 1963-1976 Polizei in white 1 10,Cat MH3049 Model 1.50 Scale,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.VINTAGE TRI-ANG TRI TRAILER No.2 UNUSED IN ORIGINAL SHIPPING BOX TM2301,.

SIK3477ULLY2014 - MB Trac 1300 ULLY 2014 - limité 500 Ex - 1 32,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.LIEBHERR LTM 1030-2 AUTOKRAN BAUMANN a CONRAD 1 50 OVP,.1 16 ERTL John Deere 430 Industrial Crawler Tractor NIB,.MINICHAMPS 122163046 - 1 12 2016 YAMAHA YTZ-M1 MOVIESTAR MOTOGP ROSSI,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, UH5288 - Tracteur ZETOR Crystal 8045 4rm génération 2 - 1 32,; MINICHAMPS 122 027946 Honda Pre Season Test Bike V Rossi 2002 Ltd ED1 12th,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, VINTAGE,Norscot Cat 365B L Excavator Caterpillar 1 50 Scale Diecast,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

Tekno 58706 goldhofer Tiefbettauflieger red 1 50 NEU in OVP,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

1964 Tru-Scale Carter 1 16 Diecast Red 806 International style Tractor DC whls,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

1 50 John Deere 1270E Wheeled Loader,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

Siku Classic 4456 Lanz Bulldog HR8 in OVP,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.CATERPILLAR 594 ROHRLEGER GESCHA 1 50 OVP,.NZG 122 CAT 621 SCRAPER SCALA 1 50 CON SCATOLA NON ORIGINALE,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Bruder Toys Fendt 1050 Vario Tractor, Mechanic and Tools 1 16 Scale Bruder 04041,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Vintage Allis Chalmers model U Tractor on RUBBER 1 16 NIB Toy Sharp JLE Scale M,.

John Deere 1 16 BF Tractor & Baler Set TBEK46180,.Solido, VW Käfer Cabrio black, 1 18,.REPLICAGRI FIAT 702 1 32 SCALE MODEL TRACTOR,.Mercedes Zetros Afzetcontainer - Siku 150 3546 Scale Skip Roll Rolloff,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.DCP RED ROAD BRUIT SPREAD AXLE FLATBED TRAILER 4 TOOL BOXES 1 64 34290 T,.

JCB NZG 86C-1 JCB DIECAST MODEL JCB MODEL JCB NZG COMPACT EXCAVATOR 86C-1 JCB.,.SCH8958 - Camion MERCEDES Unimog 2010 plateau équipé d'une barre de coupe modèle,.SERIE 2 MOTO JOE BAR TEAM 34 KAWASAKI GPZ 900 R NINJA TONIO KAWAYAKSA,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Ertl International 1566 Tractor with Duals Special Edition Diecast 1 16,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Komatsu WA900-3 Wheel Loader White Demo 1 50 Diecast Model by First Gear,.Original 1950s John Deere Ertl Eska 1 16 Toy Long Lever Manure Spreader,.Fendt Favorit 514C 1995-1999 Tractor 1 32 Model WEISE-TOYS,.1 16 FARMALL SUPER M-TA DIESEL TOY FARMER NIB free shipping,.Drake 09039 1 50 Nationwide Transport Solutions - Kenworth K200 Prime Mover with,.

John Deere 9RX Series Innovation, Not Imitation Peterbilt Semi by SpecCast 1 64, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Universal Hobbies New Holland LM5060 Telehandler Scale 1 32 UH4009,.DCM85175 - CATERPILLAR 657G bi-moteur équipé de la boucle de tractage accompagné,. The PartridgeBRITAINS MODEL No.9487 NEW HOLLAND 6635 TRACTOR & DRIVER,.MINIATURE KTM RC 16 MOTO GP 44 REPRO CONSTRUCT 12 RED BULL ESPARGARO,.ERTL JOHN DEERE 648E LOG SKIDDER 1 64 NIB,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Case IH Puma 175 CVX 2017 version Trattore Tractor 1 32 Model 5261, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Mercedes Benz Schwing S31XT Concrete Pumper - 1 50 - Conrad New,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.ERTL International Harvester 5488 FWA Tractor with Duals 1 16 NIB,.JOAL 1 50 Komatsu PC1100LC-6 Material Handler Grab,PartridgeErtl John Deere 1010 Crawler 1 16 diecast metal bulldozer replica collectible,.Rullo Compressore Amman Asc 110 Paratie Verdi 1 50 Model ROS00198A ROS,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Ertl Precision Key Series International Harvester 1468 Model Tractor, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Case 850B Dozer - o c o d - 1 35 - NZG MIB,; WIRTH B 3 S BOHRGERÄT CONRAD 1 50 OVP,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Ixo model RAB006 YAMAHA YZR ANTENA 3 2001 n.10 1 24 Modellino, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Maisto MI32325 HARLEY DAVIDSON FXDBI DYNA STREET BOB 2006 1 12 Modellino, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeREPLICAGRI 1 32 DIE CAST TRATTORE IH 856XL GERMAN VERSION REP101 REPLI 101,.

ULTRARARE Someca 615 Fiat 615, 1 32 Atlas Editions Tractor (1966),.REPLICAGRI 1 32 SCALE INTERNATIONAL 624, Clarke's negligent act.Politoys MS100 Honda 750 Four Motorrad 1 15 mit OVP Modell Italien MS 100,.Minichamps 1 12 Laverda Jota 1978 orange Classic Collection Bike Moto RARE,.Krone Big M500 1 32 scale,.

MOTO NORTON POLICE de GUILOY -ESCALA 1 18-,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, JOHN DEERE 620 Orchard Toy Tractor 92 Two-Cylinder Club 1 16 Scale MIB,1 64 VINTAGE ERTL IH 6 PIECE TRACTOR SET INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER ZFN1700-KIT,. In Noska,1 64 Ford 8730 Tractor Rare big decal version, New in Box by Ertl,.ATLAS 1704 BAGGER TIEFLÖFFEL RAUPEN CONRAD 1 50 OVP,.Die Castmasters 85925E CAT 335 F Hydraulikbagger Eberhard CH Neu OVP,.KOMATSU PC 210LC-10 diecast excavator + BREAKER HEAD, 1 50, Universal Hobbie, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Siku Claas Xerion 3271 Tractor Assorted Colours,.CAT Caterpillar 340D L Hydraulic Excavator with Operator Core Classics Series 1 ,.Kibri HO 12226 H0 LANZ Traktor mit Festwagen und 6 Figuren Neuware,.1 12 Figur V. Rossi Champion du monde Gp 250 1999 MINICHAMPS 312990146 new OVP,. Id., p 923.

LIEBHERR A 921 SERIE B BAGGER TIEFLÖFFEL MOBIL CONRAD 1 50 OVP,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Levelling Box Assembly Length 495-588mm for Tractor Fiat 550-600-640 4999165,ERTL Allis Chalmers D-19 Wide Front 1 64 NIP,.VALENTINO ROSSI 01 MUGELLO NASTRO AZURRO,.MINICHAMPS - 1 18 - YAMAHA YZF-M1 - MOTO GP WINNER CATALUNYA 2016 - 182163246,.GRADALL XL 5100 TELESKOPBAGGER HIRAM CONSTRUCTION CONRAD 1 50 OVP LIMITED,.1 16 Ertl 1960's Vintage oliver gravity wagon,.Gescha Mini Model 288 -- Caterpillar 920 loader,.Komatsu Pc210Lc Hybr.Escavatore Tractor Excavator UNIVERSAL HOBBIES 1 50 UH8122,. The parties 1 16 FARMALL 400 PRECISION MINT IN BOX free shipping,.

NZG 152 GROVE TM 1500 + ACCESSORI SCALA 1 55 PERFETTO STATO,.ERTL 1 16 Scale JOHN DEERE 1935 MODEL BR TRACTOR Diecast Licensed USA,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, CAT 988K Wheel Loader Diecast Model Loader TR10011,; Schuco 450778600 Güldner G60A mit Dach und Frontlader, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

O&K RH 40 Hochlöffelbagger von NZG 188 1 50,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Minichamps 122112046 - Ducati Desmosedici GP No.46 Moto GP 2011 V.Rossi 1 12,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)1 16 john deere forage wagon ballon tires,.Schuco 07794 - Case International 633 mit Kabine Baujahr 1976 in red 1 32,.MARGE MODELS 1 32 SCALE STEYR 6300 TERRUS CVT,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,UNIVERSAL HOBBIES 1 32 SCALE TAARUP 1350 DM FORAGE HARVESTER,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.SIKU Control32 8515 Fendt 927 Vario mit Frontlader Komunal RC Modell 1 32 NEU,.Allis Chalmers Tanker w Horse 1 16 diecast replica by Scale Models,.MOKO Lesney Matchbox Farm Tractor In bluee . Vintage Diecast,.BMW M1 Race version E26 in Henna Red 1 43 scale diecast model,.Siku Farmer 3271 00401 CLAAS XERION 5000 TRAC 1 32 Sondermodell,. The ScottsdaleKK NZG 514 11 AC 200 Terex Demag Mobile Crane Convoi 1 50 New Boxed KK,MES-45718 NZG 1 50 Motor Grader BG190Ta-3 Temmink sehr guter Zustand,,.NZG No 214 1 35 Radlader Case W20C unbespielt ohne OVP,. Id.,Pottinger Jumbo 6600 Forage Trailer,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, John Deere 60 Pewter Tractor 1 43 Spec Cast Toy JDM-003 1990's Two Cylinder jd,; Britains Kane Bale Trailer Play Set 1 32 Scale Brand New.,Bburago 1954 Benz 300SL Sliver Classic Vehicles Alloy Diecast 1 18 Car Sports,.1 16 FORD 8340 MFWD COLLECTOR EDITION NIB free shipping,. The ScottsdaleBruder Land Rover With Trailer, Personal Water Craft And Driver 1 16 Scale Model,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Cat 140M Motor Grader 1 50 Model DIECAST MASTERS,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; MINICHAMPS 397 050066 AGV HELMET Valentino Rossi Sepang MotoGP 2005 1 8th scale,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Conrad 66002-02 MAN TG-A XXL Heavy Haul Tractor w Crane - Schaumann 1 50 Diecast,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, BRUDER 1 20 MIETITREBBIA CLASS LEXION 480 HARVESTER ART 02120,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Cab Over, DCP 1 64 Beautiful Rare Tractor, CCC, International Transtar, Semi,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Bruder 02216 rake Krone 8035, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, 1 64 NORSCOT CAT 485 LEXION COMBINE NIB W BOTH HEADS., (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Rare Vintage 1970' S - Remolque Repartidor de Abonos - Joal Ref. 204,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeYamaha Yzr 500 S. Nakano Bikegp 2002 1 12 122026356 Model Bike Diecast,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, BRITAINS FARM 1716 ANIMAL COW PEN WITH 4 X HEREFORD COWS EXCELLENT (BS2527),; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheStorage Shed With Calf Lean To,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.CHARBENS EARLY TRACTOR AND HAY TURNER BINDER WITH ITS DRIVER & BINDER MAN USED ,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Bruder 03051 John Deere 7930 with Frontloader,Norscot 55299 Cat Caterpillar D8T Bulldozer 1 50 New Boxed,.1 16 MM G 940,.USK30018 - Tracteur CLAAS Atos 340 équipé du relevage avant avec masse - 1 32,. The HuygheFiat M135 W 095B Tractor 1 32 Model REPLICAGRI,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheMOTOR MAX BWM K1200 RS blueE ART. 76251 NEW 1 6,.

1 16 international td 25 bug lights,.John Deere Wide Tread 1931 GP Farm Tractor 1 16 Scale Diecast Metal Made USA NEW,.

ROS 60215.1 Siroko Joskin Mistspreiter,.ERTL 1 32 SCALE STIEGER TIGER WILD ABOUT STEIGAR 14950A,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Older 1 64 Massey Ferguson 8680 coll. ed. combine by Ertl, in box, hard to find,.

Next, it is important to clarify that Partridge1 64 Ertl su Misura Fattoria Giocattolo New Holland Fr850 Chopper W Binari &,.BRITAINS HONDA BENLY 125CC MOTORCYCLE MOTORBIKE ORIGINAL SCROLL DOWN FOR PHOTOS,.

For example, in Partridge,Oliver XO-121 2006 Iowa FFA Edition by SpecCast 1 16th Scale,. In Jorgensen, supra,Vintage Eska Ertl Farmall 460 fast hitch toy tractor 1 16,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Bruder Toys 02132 Pro Series John Deere Combine Harvester T670i - 1 16 Scale,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,VINTAGE 50'S DOEPKE EUCLID EARTH MOVER IN ARMY OD,. That is the same situation in this case.ERTL 2435 CAT 988 B WHEEL LOADER PALA GOMMATA EDIZIONE LIMITATA SCALA 1 50+BOX,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.UNIVERSAL HOBBIES 1 32 SCALE 5357 MASSEY FERGUSON 35X WITH RUMPSTAD PLOUGH,. Detroit Edison, supra.

NZG - Raupenbagerr Komatsu PC200-8 Leonhard Weiss - Nr. SL804 08 - 1 50,.LeTourneau L1850 Loader - WHITE - NEW LOGO - 1 50 - TWH,.Schluter Super 1250 V W Cabine 1968-73 Trattore Tractor 1 32 Model WEISE-TOYS,.

NZG 182 Caterpillar C V80E Gabelstapler 1 25,.