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Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
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1 18 Welly Porsche Boxster S red - neu in OVP,
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.



MURPHY, J.

Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals TYRRELL FORD 007 1975 J.P. JABOUILLE MINICHAMPS 1 43,.50-3351 Beaver Tail Trailer White NEW IN BOX,.Mercedes Benz 300 SL W 198 Gullwing 1954-57 White White 1 43,.Jada 98291 - 1 24 Scale Model Car Fast & Furious - Dom's Ice Charger,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.(V) french dinky SIMCA VERSAILLES - 24Z,.Forklift loader lifter Combilift C 14000 brand new with boxing,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.TWH Movimento Terra 074A-01062 SWEEPSTER FRONT MOUNTED BROOM 1 50 Modellino,.Volkswagen Polizei 1956 Rio 1 43 RIO4464 Model,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Vintage Matchbox Moko Lesney Berkeley Cavalier Caravan No.23 in Original Box,.Dinky Toys 105 Triumph TR 2 in excellent original condition,.RARE RENAULT MAXI MEGANE 1 43 GAM RESTAURATION 069D VITESSE, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

Code 3 - FDNY Seagrave Rear Mount Ladder 174 - Mint in Box,.2011 Hot Wheels the Hot Ones El Rey Pontiac Firebird Pontiac Fiero Sol Aire Jeep,.PORSCHE 935 K3 DAYTONA 1980 B. AKIN COCA COLA TSM TRUESCALE TSM10431 1 43,.VW COMBI POMPIERS FEUERWEHR Grande Echelle SCHUCO 03341 1 43,.

Tonka Tractor Cab Only 1950s,.Johnny lightning white lightning Ghoulish Show Rod Vampire Van Card series 2 New,.Solido 1 43 Scale Model Car S090119 - 1969 Mini Cooper - Red,.Brazilian Chevrolet Collection - 1979 Chevette SL 4 Doors - Brazilian Issue,.Lego London Red Bus set.,.

JADA ROAD RIGZ PETERBILT 387 HAULER BIGTIME MUSCLE 14 (35cm) BRAND NEW & RARE,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Märklin Mercedes 8010 Formelrennwagen Auto silverpfeil Nr. 7 Western Germany,.AUDI R8 V10 5.2L yellow 1 18 2015,.BoS Fuldamobil N2 - silver - 1955 - 1 43,BMW I8 Roadster (I15) 2017 - 1 43 - Minichamps,.CORGI Classic Routemaster, London Transport, 60th Anniversary Collection OM46310,.

KYOSHO BMW X3 - blueE METALLIC 1 43 - EXCELLENT CONDITION - 15,.Minichamps 1 43 Opel Tigra Twin Top 2004 Red Art.400043131,.LOT 26156 Minichamps 400056466 Porsche 911 GT3 RSR Modellauto 1 43 OVP,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

Hot Wheels Acceleracers Team Teku POWER RAGE FROM FACTORY SET NMOC,.

1 43 AUTOart Lotus Elise bluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. We agree in part.

1 64 DCP TRANSNET PETERBILT 579 W 72 SLEEPER,.Corgi Junior No 99 Jokermobile - White (UNOPENED Original 1978),.

A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.ATLAS 1 43 - 3128 020 MCLAREN FORD M7C - 1969 BRUCE MCLAREN,.Peugeot 504 Break 1976 Gendamerie ( Polizei ) 1 18 MCG,.JADA Big Time Muscle 2006 CHevy Camaro Concept Car HE Edition NEW 1 24 Diecast,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; UT MODELS 180024336 BMW Z3 JAMES BOND 007 goldENEYE 1.18 NB,.Ferrari 330 P2 Metallizzato 1 43 Best Be9079 Model Car Diecast,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, 2017 JUSTICE LEAGUE BATMOBILE WITH DIECAST BATMAN FIGURINE 1 24 BY JADA 99232,; Alfa Roemo Giulietta Ti 1959 Carabinieri Rio4149 1 43 Model Diecast,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Motormax 1 24 Scale Diecast - 73380 Fiat 500 Abarth White Red stripe,.3 rare Opel Kadett E GSi Limousine Modelle von Gama in 1 43 neu, OVP,1 50 CORGI 73007 BERLIET GLR FOURGON 4T,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Schuco Mercedes-Benz Unimog 406 1 43 PTT (JS),.

Ixo 1 43 Scale RAM154 - Citron Xsara WRC - Winner silverina 2004,.

A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.DINKY TOYS ATLAS FOURGON PEUGEOT D3A CIBIE blue REF 25BV 1 43 IN BOX no poste b,.TOYOTA LAND CRUISER LC80 green 1 43 RHD,.1 18 Fast & Furious (2009) 1970 Chevy Chevelle SS Primer Grey,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Matchbox Roadblasters And Matchbox Parasites Lot Holden Ruff Trek,; Mercedes Pollmann 300C Hearse Funeral Car 1956 Carro Funebre BoS 1 43 BOS43465 M,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, PLASTIC MADE IN SPAIN CITROEN 2 CV 2CV - GREY 1 43 - CORREOS - GOOD CONDITION,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

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CITROEN DS3 WRC World Champion RALLYE de FRANCE 2012 1 43,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

YANG MING Sea Transport Cargo Shipping Container Model 1 20 Decorations,

COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY

This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]

Peugeot D3a D4a bus green clair & green foncé Rétro 87 - SAI 3286 - Ech 1 87,

This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

CORGI 1 43 SCALE HERITAGE EX70537 - RENAULT 1000KG - MILLIAT FRERES,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Wiking 099094 Set Asg, Model 1 87 (H0),.Audi TT 8S Roadster 2015 gletscher white modelcar Kyosho 1 43,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Bburago BU12020W FIAT 500 F 1965 WHITE 1 18 Modellino,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.New Blago 1 43 scale Ferrari F40 Competitione BR-18-36100-F40 Red Japan,.

TRAX TR9B 1 43 FORD FALCON 500 SEDAN - MINT BOXED,.1 18 Collection 711 VW Käfer Polizei Stuttgart 71101,.SUBARU IMPREZA WRC RAC RALLY 1995 C. McRAE IXO RAC093 1 43,.Kobelco SK350-8 Excavator 1 50 Scale Diecast Model Yellow color Engineering Car,.

Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Corgi 1 43 Scale Diecast D708 1 - 1963 Lotus Cortina Mk1 - White,.

RENAULT 5 MAXI TURBO -1985-J. RAGNOTTI 1 18° IXO ALTAYA,.LANCIA THEMA 6V 1984 BRUN METAL NOREV 783022 1 43 ITALI,.Greenlight 1 64 Starsky & Hutch 1976 Ford Gran Torino Chrome Chase Car 51224,.

The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Ixo 1 43 Scale RAM482 - Citroen DS3 WRC - Monte Carlo 2012,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Lilliput Micro-Racer Mercedes 190 SL lindgreen-white,.BLITZ VERSAND Volkswagen VW T1 Bus 1963 red-creme Welly Modell Auto 1 18 NEU OVP,.MINICHAMPS MELKUS RS 2000 EVOLUTION orange 437010020,.Hot wheels super treasure hunt corvette grand sport roadster,.Matchbox 1999 COCA COLA POLAR BEAR SET OF 6 Dad's + Son's Models New Mint Bublpk,.

Corgi 1 50 Scale CC12102 - Renault Premium Curtainside - Armstrong, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.HOT WHEELS 2 x CAMARO Z-28 CORVETTE VINTAGE 1980's 2x CANADIAN CARDS,.1 18 ERTL AMERICAN MUSCLE 1932 FORD STREET ROD YELLOW od,. The PartridgeRIO 1 43 - Alfa Romeo Giulietta TI Wien 1962,.1 18 Yat Ming Jaguar XJS 1975 bronze 92658,.BATMAN 1966 VERSION BATMOBILE DIE CAST MODEL HOT WHEELS,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Corgi eddie stobart 1 50, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.WM Nr.600 Mercedes 220 Feuerwehr - orangered (V1) - T@P,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Modellauto Seat Leon Cupra 280 1 43 Pirineos grey SD60090024,.1 43 Scale model Mitsubishi L200 Police,PartridgeNorev 157 Citroen Dyane plastique perfect mint,.Brumm BM0451 FIAT 600 MULTIPLA POLIZIA 1960 1 43 Modellino,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Corgi Classic Commercials 1 50 AEC Regal Hanson , (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Norev 1 43 - Panhard PL17 Cabriolet Red,; Auto World 1 64 Premium 2017 3 Version B 1972 Dodge Challenger AWSP003 Chase Car,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, Maisto 1 18 Scale Diecast - 31111 BMW 645 Ci Congreenible Dark bluee, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Hot Wheels Don SNAKE Prudhomme Army 1977 Die Cast Funny Car Dragster Plymouth, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying Partridge1 43 Ferrari 250 LM n°5 Paris 1964 1 43 • Best BEST9629,.

Porsche 962 C LH Sieger Le Mans 1987 n° 17 1 43 Spark MAP02028713,.Matchbox No.22B Freeman Intercity Commuter metallic purplec body, Clarke's negligent act.Motormax MTM73181GY LAMBORGHINI GALLARDO SUPERLEGGERA 2007 DARK GREY 1 18 Modell,.1 18 Minichamps Morris Minor Cabrio green green in VP,.Hot Wheels Grand Prix F1 2000 Ferrari Vodafone B8769, Renault F1, Williams F1,.

Dinky Toys Ford GT 40 Le Mans Racing Car - 1960s Dinky Toy Racing Cars No 6,.

The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Porsche Cayenne Highway Patrol - 1 43 - Minichamps,Mattel Hot Wheels Light and Sounds Racer Bone Shaker VehicleOBOFS,. In Noska,SCHUCO PICCOLO UNIMOG SPIELWARENMESSE 2002 AGE 50527000,.57 Chevy Hot Wheels Redline Premium Resto- Spoiler Conversion Pink,.Herpa LKW MAN TG-S LX KSZ Bayr.Schmankerl Bayernmodell 2017,.1 76 Corgi CC18302 - Renault Magnum Curtainside - Dave Pollard Transport Ltd., necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.IXO 1 43 IFA W50 L 1973 TRU027 CLC261 Diecast Models Limited Edition Collection,.Russian CCCP USSR Moskvitch station fire engine,.Lancia Delta HF Integrale 16V Baujahr 1990 grey metallic 1 18 Triple9,.Onyx 1 43 Scale - XGT016 PORSCHE 911 GT2 A.POULY P.FAVRE 1988,. Id., p 923.

Motormax 1 24 Scale Diecast Model Car 79642 - McLaren P1 - Gulf,.

In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Schuco 07456 Mercedes Benz SLS AMG Roadster in Brown 1 43,IXO Bedford TJ 6S Maes Pils 1965 1 43 TRU012,.Yonezawa Toys Diapet K-28 Steam Roller Made In Japan N M Box,.Autoart 1 43 Scale Diecast 54576 - Lamborghini Gallardo Police Car - bluee,.Schuco 1 43 Art.03341 VW T2a Freiwillige Feuerwehr Albig mit Drehleiter,.BENTLEY CONTINENTAL GTC cabriolet blue Breeze 1 43,.MINICHAMPS, MERCEDES-BENZ 190E redTERDAM POLICE, POLITIE 1 43 Scale,,.Yatming Road Signature 1962 Volkswagen Microbus Green White 1 18,. The parties Matra Sports M 530 1 43 OVP Dinky Toys Atlas Verlag Nr.1403,.

Minichamps 400076445 Porsche 911 GT3 Rsr-Flying Lizard Motorsport – L. E. .1200,.TSM - 1984 NISSAN blueEBIRD COCA-COLA LIVERY 1 43rd HIGH DETAIL RESIN - TSM104315,

Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, GREENLIGHT 1 18 1967 FORD BRONCO NEW YORK CITY POLICE CAR NYPD GREEN 19036,; Greenlight 1 18 Artisan Collection 1976 Ford Bronco Twin Peaks Diecast Car 19034, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

Schuco 02076 1954 Goggomobil T250 Polizei Green White 1 43,.

Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, JOHNNY LIGHTNING 1 64 CHASE 1969 CHEVY TRAIL BLAZER DIE-CAST WHITE JLCP7001,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Voiture miniature Aston Martin d b 4 année 1965 Corgi,.Corgi 24402 Leyland Octopus Flatbed, Eddie Stobart Diecast Model in 1 50 Scale.,.Citroen 2CV Cabriolet Azelle Diecast Model Car 150093,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,Coffret Citroën ZX SOLIDO - Reflex, Volcane, Aura, Avantage - 1990’s - Neuf,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Mercedes Benz Sl-Class 2001 Red Metallic 400031032 1 43 Modellino Diecast,.NOSTALGIE 1 43 SCALE - N0 24 - SIMCA ARONDE 1954 - GREEN,.Schuco 1 43 - Audi R8 V10 2009 silver carbone,.1 87 EM4680 Herpa Scania CS Riwatrans red Baustoff 4achs Herpa Umbau Eigenbau,.A.S.S WIKING ALTER LKW IH INT. HARVESTER silvergrey GK 446 1B CS 626 1B 1.W TOP,. The Scottsdale1 50 Scale Kobelco Geospec Acera SK350-8 Hydraulic Excavator Vehicle Diecast,LAWSON 1 72 FORD 100th Anniversary collection ( set of 8 ) GT40 MUSTANG COBRA,.Vintage Rami - HISPANO SUIZA coupè type J-12 - 1 43 France,. Id.,Corgi CC13421; MAN TGA Curtainside, Sloan, with Moffett Mounty; Excellent Boxed,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 1 18 Ertl Land Rover Freelander red,; Minichamps 1 43 Bmw 320si winner Instanbul Race 1 Alex Zanardi,BX380-0,5 x Wiking 1 87 H0 Fire Service Model Magirus + Mercedes MB,2.,.CITROEN DYANE 6 green Jade AC539 1 18 2CV,. The ScottsdalePorsche 911 Gt3r 2000 White 1 43 High Speed Hf9156f Passionauto09 ,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, 2017 Pop Culture Nestle Chevy Dodge VW Set of 5 Pcs 1 64 Hot Wheels DLB45-956G,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; GREENLIGHT 1 18 SCALE 1967 VOLKSWAGEN BEETLE RIGHT HAND DRIVE MODEL BN 13512,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Hasegawa HGSCR36 LANCIA STRATOS HF N.7 3rd SAFARI RALLY 1977 S.MUNARI-P.SODANO K,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, CMNL UKBUS2005 Dennis Trident Plaxton First London Centrewest 207 Acton BOX,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, 1 18 Alfa Romeo 8C COMPETIZIONE año 2007 Bburago 12077y yellow,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, TOYOTA MARK X PREMIUM EARLY TITANIUM MICA METAL 2000 KYOSHO 03637S3 1 43 GREY, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Maxichamps 940054201 Volkswagen Passat 1975 orange 1 43 Scale, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Bub Scale 1 87 Bubmobile Sondermodell, LKW , Edition Messe 2005 (GK5),; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeSchuco H0 Deutsche Post Filatelia Camión Iveco Evita Internet Mercado,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, CORGI ERF 44 VAN MOORHOUSES JAMS ,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheHot Wheels REDLINE '68 CAMARO(1 18 Scale) SEALED Classics For SALE EXCELLENT,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.SCHUCO PICCOLO SET CIRCUS KRONE REF 5204 EN BOITE,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Trax Top Gear Holden HQ Kingswood Sedan Mustard TR17C,Vintage Dinky Super Toys. 972 20-Ton Lorry Mounted Crane Coles. Boxed,.Minichamps 1 43 - Audi A3 2.0T cabriolet 2007 black métallisé,.Spark 1 43 Alfa Romeo 147 Spark Mega Selten. NEU,. The Huyghe1 43 Wit's Mitsubishi Galant Fortis W76,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuyghePorsche 914 1969-1973 orange Minichamps 1 43,.

1 43 ISO GRIFO 7 LITRI 1968 MAROON by MINICHAMPS,.New 1965 Pontiac GTO Hurst bluee 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Maisto 31885bl,.

Rare Lada Vaz 2107 Volkspolizei Police CCC060 1 43 ixo ist,.1 18 MOTOR MAX PLATINUM COLLECTION 1964 1 2 FORD MUSTANG CONgreenIBLE WHITE rd,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Hotwheels Metal Collection Red Corvette Congreenible 1 18 Item C7525 New,.

Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeOriginal 1969 Hot Wheels Redline SHELBY TURBINE (Hong Kong) with badge button,.Rare 1 25 Schabak Scale Diecast Ford Orion Ghia,.

For example, in Partridge,Minichamps (DV) Mercedes-Benz C-Klasse T-Modell 1 43 Tansanitblue (JS),. In Jorgensen, supra,Chevrolet Bel Air 1955 - 1 18 - Motor Max,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Universal Hobbies UH4964 CASSONE A RIBALTAMENTO LATERALE TAARUP TIPVOGN T3 1 32,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,ZC900 Corgi CC99111 Miniature Voiture 1 43 Ford Capri & Reliant Regal Super Van,. That is the same situation in this case.LOT DE 4 VOITURE MICRO MINIATURE NOREV RENAULT,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Kyosho Model Car NISSAN SKYLINE GT-R 4 doors 1 43 (red) Japanese Model Cars,. Detroit Edison, supra.

Herpa 307987 Scania R TL Gardinenplanen Sattelzug LKW Stelzl Scale 1 87 NEU OVP,.Voiture avec sa clé 1 18,.Greenlight Datsun 240Z BRE 1970 John Morton 29880A 1 64 CHASE,.

Corgi 1 43 Cameo Various Liveries,.