Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Barkas B1000 Wohnmobil 1973 White Ist Model 1 43 IST297MR Model,.KIT PORSCHE 928 S PROSURF NURBURGRING 1982 GAMMA MODELS 1 43 NEUF EN BOITE,.BoS Mercedes 600 Pullman Bestattungswagen - black - 1 43,.1 18 Pontiac GTO 1964 1 18 • Sunstar 1825,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.DINKY 210 ALFA ROMEO 33 TIPO LE MANS ORIGINAL BOXED,.1 24 Diecast Chevrolet Deluxe Bel Air,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.Jolly-Model 1 43 - Porsche RS 1500 Targa Florio 61 Moss,.1 18 Rolling Chassis -- 2012 Team Vodafone VE2 Commodore Lowndes,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.1 18 Motor Max Ford Interceptor Utility 2015 white 73547,.MINICHAMPS 1 43 - BENETTON RENAULT B 196 J.ALESI T2M - L.EDITION - NMIB,.Hasegawa HG20274 MAZDA COSMO SPORT (N.19 4th-N.18 DNF) MARATHON DE LA ROUTE 1968, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
1 43 Brumm Fiat Nuova 500 Economica + Normale Aperta 57,.BBURAGO 1 18 FERRARI SIGNATURE SERIES - CALIFORNIA T (OPEN TOP) 18-16904WH,.Ferrari mondial 8 3.2 by record made in France 1 43,.LOTUS ELITE 1960 ROAD SIGNATURE 92769 1 18,.
Premium X 1 43 Scale PRD519J - Nissan GT-R LM Nismo MC 2015 bluee,.Schuco 5820 MAGIRUS-DEUTZ-SERVICE SET PICCOLO Modellino,.Corgi Vanguards VA12404 Ford Granada Highland Green 1 43 Limited Edition,.GreenLight 1 18 Artisan Collection - 1976 Ford Bronco Twin Peaks 19034,.First Response Replicas Premier Edition BNSF Railroad Police 1 43 Scale Diecast,.
Johnny Lightning 1960s Batmobile 1 24 Scale Die-Cast Model Kit (BH014),. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Verem Résine Militaire Armée 1 50 - DUKW,.PremiumX PR0186 LAMBORGHINI COUNTACH 25th ANNIVERSARY 1989 RED 1 43,.Fire fighting vehicle minicar American car to Sunday,Equipe Gallois Kit Monté 1 43 - Jaguar Type D Short Nose,.Minichamps 1 43 Scale 400 076471 - Porsche 911 GT3 RSR 12H Sebring 2007,.
Minichamps -1 43 - Mclaren 12C GT3 H Spa 2013,.First 43 1 43 Toyota Randokuruza 60 Series Products 1982 White New F S,.Rio 1 43 - Fiat 238 Ambulanza Esercito Italiano Ambulance kaki - NEW,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
Spark 1 43 - HPD ARX 01D N°42 STRAKKA Racing Le Mans 2011,.
Model_kits Aoshima Bunka 1 24 BEEMAX Series No. 19 1 24 Honda Civic EF9 Gr91 SB,. We agree in part.
1 43 CITROEN C25 GEAS GUARDIA CIVIL 1991 BLISTER NQCP ALTAYA IXO,.Corgi Rover MGB Lancashire Constabulary Set LC1003,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.1957 Chevrolet Bel Air Open Congreenible blue 1 18 Motor Max 73175,.CITROEN DS 21 RALLY MONTE CARLO 1966 TOIVONEN ALTAYA IXO 1 18,.Greenlight 1 64 Scale 31030-C - Gone In 60 Seconds - Hitch & Tow Set -Chase Cars,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; James Bond Aston Martin Vanquish -Die Another Day,.Cararama 1 43 Scale Model Car 00148 - Mini Cooper & Trailer Green Maroon,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Vanguards Corgi VA00127 Ford Anglia 105E Chrome Vanguards Club Special,; Hotchkiss PL20 4X4 Pompiers Tambaccounda ELIGOR - EL 101438 - Echelle 1 43,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
Alte Feuerwehr Modellauto Blechauto 30 cm Oldtimer Feuerwehrauto US Car,.FIAT ABARTH 750 ZAGATO 1° Cl. SEBRING 1961 GLERTZ LIESS Best 9487,Matchbox MoY C2 Y-65 Austin 7 creme MICA aus Australien sehr selten OVP K23,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Schuco 301 852 Audi 100 LS 1 66 Diecast Modellauto MIB TOP OVP 1601-30-83,.
AX740-0,5Herpa H0 1 87 Sattelzug LKW Renault Magnum Söllner Logistik, NEUW+OVP,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.USSR CCCP LADA SAMARA SALOON - VAZ 21099 - blueE 1 43 - FAIR CONDITION- 5,.Unbranded 1 43 Scale White Metal 17OCT17V Lotus gold Leaf Model F1 Car,.Onyx XLM037 Panoz Spyder LMP Le Mans 2000 Brabham Magnussen Andretti 1 43 MIB,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, VITESSE - CITROEN DS 19 - 1959 - GINA LOLLOBRIGIDA - 1 43 - ANCIEN -,; Berliet Gak 'Benne' 1960 Grey 1 43 Model NOREV,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Hot Wheels - Ferrari Test Trax (Mattel, 2003) Almost Complete in Box,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
1 43 Spark Aston Martin DB3 Le Mans 1952 Abecassis Poore S2433,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
MAISTO TROPHEE LAMBORGHINI COLLECTION 4 CARS - EXCELLENT BOXED CONDITION,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Minichamps Mercedes-Benz C-Class DTM 2005 1 43 Jean Alesi (FRA) (JS),
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
EFE 1 76 OO Scale 4x Model Set - British Steel (2) J.D.Lown & Co London Carriers,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Spark 1 43 Aston Martin AR1 2004 Green S0377,.Porsche Panamera S Hybrid (gt-silvermetalli) 2011,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.SKID SKM99052 Mitsubishi Pajero Fontenay Picard Paris Dakar 1998 1 43 MIB,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.1 43 Minichamps Porsche 996 GT3 R PZK Oase 2000 NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.
FIAT 131 Abarth Rallye RAC GB Lombard Röhrl 1978 Alitalia Pirell Trofeu 1 43,.WSI03-1010 - Chassis porte container extensible - 1 50,.Wiking 099078 Set Die Flotte vom Hanomag-Dienst mit Rundgarage 1 87 HO,.Quartzo QZ27804 LOTUS 49B G.HILL 1969 N.1 WINNER MONACO GP 1 43 Modellino,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Minichamps Ford Escort WRC 1997 1 43 Vatanen Freeman Network Q RAC Rally,.
Texaco Petite Pedal Car Complete Set,.Revell 1 18 Scale Diecast 08879 - Ford 12M Streifen - Taunus - Coral White,.JOHNNY LIGHTNING OFF ROAD JEEP CHEROKEE WHITE LIGHTNING TIRES 23,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Herpa Exclusiv Serie Nr. 3 - VW Passat NEF „Malteser , Rarität, H0 1 87, neu+OVP,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.Ford Explorer XLT 2015 Red 1 18 Model MOTORMAX,.CHRONO 1 18 - H1072 LOTUS ELISE GT1 THAI R. PRUTIRAT 1997,.34. VW VOLKSWAGEM BRASILIA AUTO TOUR scale 1 43 - Service Vehicles of Brazil,.CORGI 275 ROVER 2000 TC BOXED,.Spark 1 43 Resin Lotus 25 BRM, 1966 British Gran Prix, Mike Spence S1853,.
Porsche 928 GTS Coupe blue Metallic 1991 1977-1995 1 43 Minichamps Maxichamps .., the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.MINICHAMPS VALENTINO ROSSI MODEL AGV HELMET HELMET 1 8 MOTO GP 2004 NEW RARE,.Norev SB 1 18 - Renault 4 4L Beige 1963,. The PartridgeMotormax 1 24 Scale Metal Model 79326 McLaren 650s Spider - Green,.Shinsei Mini Power Ufo Commander 7 Commander Shovel made in Japan '70,.Lledo Days Gone Set Of 11 Mint Models,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, Lion car-Lion Toys COMMER WALK THRU DELIVERY VAN REEBERGEN + BOX, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Maillet Eric 3 - blue white - IXO Models - 1 43 - CAC005,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.Revell , JOUEF EVOLUTION 3009, Ferrari 330 P4 boxed,,.MERCEDES 190 AMBUMANCE DRK 1961 MINICHAMPS 1 43,PartridgeVolkswagen VW Brezelkäfer Coccinelle 1949 von Solido in 1 17 Oldtimer Modellauto,.Hot Wheels Enzo Ferrari Ferrari 458 Italia Ferarri 330 P4 Lot of 8 2010 NIP,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Greenlight 1 43 Scale 86517 - 1984 Chevrolet Corvette C4 - The A Team, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Motormax 1 24 Scale 79646 - Mercedes Benz SLS AMG GT3 - Gulf,; Solido PORSCHE 911 RSR 2.8 green (BJ. 1974) 1 18 S1801102,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, FORD EXPLORER XLT blue 1 18 2015, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, Bugatti Veyron Centennaire 2009 - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 30348, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeJada 1 24 Scale 97603 Fast & Furious - Brian's Mitsubishi Eclipse,.
Matchbox Lesney Nº38c HONDA MOTORCYCLE & TRAILER, Regular Wheels (MIB),.Maserati Ghibli Spider - blue metalizzato - 1 of 5.040 - Minichamps - 1 43, Clarke's negligent act.HYUNDAI i20 WRC Rallye WM Portugal Neuville 2018 Minipartes IXO 1 43,.FF 1 43 DETAIL CARS DETAILCARS 432 BMW 3000 CS COUPE 1971 METALLIC GREY MIB,.1 18 Williams FW24 Juan Pablo Montoya 2002 F1 Minichamps NEW OVP TOPP ,.
CHOP SHOP 4PC FIGURE SET 1 18 SCALE BY AMERICAN DIORAMA 38159,60,61,62,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 26497 GUISVAL SPAIN EX MINIALUXE BERLIET GAK + VACHES 1 50,JADA DIE CAST 1 24 1971 YELLOW CHEVY CAMERO SS LOW RIDER BIGTIME Muscle RARE ,. In Noska,New 1950 Ford Soft Top Red 1 18 Diecast Model Car by Maisto 31681r,.SOLIDO 1 18 CHEVROLET PANEL MILITAIRE NEUF EN BOITE,.Mercedes Sprinter CDI Swiss Army (Eligor 1 43 112447),.WELLY 1 18 - 12531W 1963 VOLKSWAGEN T1 BUS - RED CREAM, necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.ESDO Ref. 70 Resin SIMCA 9 Sport 1952 1 43 built kit no box good condition,.Porsche 911 991 R Coupe 2017 - Spark 1 43 in Box 34671,.Corgi 1 36 Scale Diecast CC99193 - Aston Martin DB5 & DBS Set - Casino Royale,.Tekno Reisebus DAF SBR 3000 - HAVI Travel- 1 50,. Id., p 923.
Herpa 280600 Mercedes Benz Actros LH Box Semitrailer May Market Mannheim 2006,.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Vitesse Models 1 43 Scale Diecast L146B - Chevrolet Corvette Le Mans 1972,Dinky 914 AEC articulated lorry (0012 1372) G-31 ,.DeAgostini F40 1987 1 24 Le Grandi Ferrari Collection No.1 Model Magazine set,.Jouef evolution 1 18 1961 Ferrari 250 GT Berlinette Red Box Rare,.Porsche 911 991 Carrera S 2013 Yellow Welly 1 18 WE18047Y,.Porsche 911 Gt3 Rs 4.0 2012 bluee 1 18 Model 11036BL BBURAGO,.RENAULT R5 MARTOYS SCALA 1 24 MODELLINO color red,.MIRA porsche 911 au 1 25 a piles,. The parties SUBARU LEGACY RS TURBO black 1 43,.
1 43 MINICHAMPS MCLAREN F1 GTR `GULF` 1997 LEMANS PIECE LITD ED,.1953 WHITE 3000 COE DELIVERY VAN ALLIS-CHALMERS 1 34 MODEL BY FIRST GEAR 10-4085,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Chevrolet Camaro Ss 2016 Red, Model Car 1 18 Maisto,; 1 43 - Bentley EXP Speed 8 Le Mans 2001 (Wallace Leitzinger Van de Poele), (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
BMW E63 M6 IAA 2007 - MINICHAMPS 1 43 403026123 - OVP,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Hape Parking de Madera 4-teilig E3002 Nuevo,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Atlas Editions Dinky Toys 104 - Aston Martin DB35 - Pink,.Minichamps 1 43 Ford Kuga white 2013 OVP (B716),.Kyosho original 1 43 Prince Skyline Sports Coupe White,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,SPARK ORECA 03 NISSAN ADR DELTA LE MANS 2012 1 43,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.FERRARI LAFERRARI F70 HYBRID WHITE 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR HOTWHEELS BLY54,.1 18 Bburago Ferrari F40 44 JAHRE KHB white NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,.Vanguards Ford Sierra RS Cosworth Moonstone bluee 1 43 MIB Ltd Ed VA11702,.M.R.F. RESIN KIT (built) 1958 FERRARI 250 GT SWB - RED 1 43 - GOOD CONDITION,.Vintage machbox 60s tootsie toy,. The Scottsdale1 43 PremiumClassixxs VW T3 Tischer-Camping Wohnmobil 11527 red silver,Scottoy 39PA LANCIA III SERIE POLIZIA SQ.MOBILE Modellino,.51 Pcs Roadsters Diecast Racing Vehicles Model Mini Car Playing Toy Set Kid Gift,. Id.,Lagermax LKW Autotransporter Mercedes - Herpa HO 1 87 Modell 936057 E,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Altaya 1 43 Scale AL211118C - Ford Escort Cosworth 1000 Lakes 1994,; John Deere 624K Military Green Wheel Loader by ERTL 1 50 Die-Cast 36881 NEW ,Majorette 1 60 Nr. 210 VW Volkswagen K70 Limousine hellblue,.MERCEDES 320 TE 1990 red Bordeaux MINICHAMPS 1 43,. The ScottsdaleErtl American Muscle 1953 Corvette Brushed gold Die Cast Metal Car 1 18 Scale,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, PORSCHE 911 997 RUF CONCEPT MODEL A 2008 black SPARK S0739 1 43,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; PORSCHE Cayman GT4 Coupe 2016 yellow yellow Resin Highend Spark 1 43,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, PEUGEOT 405 T16 PIKES PEAK 1988 A. VATANEN 1 18 IXO ALTAYA,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 28. Dodge Dart 1975 - scale 1 43 - Amazing Cars From Brazil,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Top Model 1 43 Scale Resin TMC 3013 - 2000 Alfa Romeo GTV - Red,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, Corgi Appx 1 43 Scale Diecast 96655 - James Bond Aston Martin DB5, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Motor Max 1 18 - Chrysler C300 1955, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, SPARK YGK Power First Points 5th LMP1 Intercontinental Le Mans Cup 2010 1.43,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeGREENLIGHT 1 18 THE A TEAM 1977 PLYMOUTH FURY US ARMY POLICE CAR GREEN 19053,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, 6 x Matchbox VW Käfer Superfast 11, Connectables, Sand Digger dragon wheels 1972,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuyghePolistil S15 Volkswagen Beetle 1300 In bluee - Near Mint Retro 1 25,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.CORGI TOYS MGA SPORTS CAR 1 43 RED RALLYE VERSION,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,CURSOR - MERCEDES BENZ UNIMOG U 1500 - MINT AND BOXED,Ford Deluxe Coupe' 1940 Highway Patrol 1 18 Model MOTORMAX,.BD356-0,5x Wiking H0 1 87 29 478 Pritschen-Lastzug LKW Büssing 8000, NEUW+OVP,.REYNARD 2KQ Lehmann n°29 Le Mans 2004,. The HuygheMERCURY FIAT 125 - RED 1 43 - NICE CONDITION,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuyghePorsche 718 (982) Boxster S indischred Minichamps 1 43 fabrikneu,.
1 43 Minichamps 430 015931 Wartburg 311 2 cabriolet red white MIB,.Minichamps 1 43 BENTLEY ARNAGE R 2003 bluee Metallic 436139001 Limited 1 of 3216,.
MONMC Hot Wheels Bronco 4-Wheeler w GYG-Real Riders Card,.Peugeot 308 GTi 2015 Pearl White Norev 473820 1 43,. Nonetheless, on the facts of M3 Lee 1 43 chars de combat,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeExpresso Auto Models 1 43 Scale Diecast - EA90061 Mercedes Benz CL Coupe Grey,.Dinky No 480 Bedford Van (KODAK) - Yellow (Original 1950's NEAR MINT),.
For example, in Partridge,Franklin Mint 1 24 Duesenberg 1933 SJ Twenty Grand New NOS Mintnoboxed,. In Jorgensen, supra,Maisto 1965 Pontiac GTO Hurst Edition bluee Muscle Car Die Cast Toys W Box 1 18,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.BBURAGO 1 18 SCALE FERRARI 348 TS - GREY - 16006GY (BRAND NEW),. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Volkswagen VW Käfer RHD Baujahr 1967 pink white 1 18 Greenlight,. That is the same situation in this case.GAZ M-20 USSR CCCP CONVERSION 1 43 Without a box,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.INTERNATIONAL HX520 DAY CAB TANDEM TRACTOR RED 1 50 BY DIECAST MASTERS 71002,. Detroit Edison, supra.
VITESSE 1 43 SCALE 7711149083 RENAULT ESTAFETTE 1952 SERIE LTD - AMORA,.Burago Lamborghini Aventador LP700-4 1 18 Diecast Model,.OPEL Astra V8 Coupe DTM Holzer OASE Bartels 2001 Minichamps RARE 1 43,.
Tsiotas Toys (Greece) Yellow Porsche Turbo (Turbo 959) Plastic 222-mm NIB,.