Docket No. 110598.
Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.
Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.
Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.
Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.
Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals Toyota Harrier Airs 2006 - 1 43 - J-Collection,.2018 HOT WHEELS RLC FACTORY SET SUPER TREASURE HUNT KING CUDA,.CORGI SUNBEAM IMP POLICE CAR USED CONDITION VINTAGE OLD PLEASE SEE PHOTOS,.Jaguar XK 120C Winner Le Mans 1951 LM1951 IXO 1 43 New in a box,.
The essential facts are not in dispute.Rietze 67319 MAN Lion´s City DD Algemarin , BVG Berlin , 1 87 , neu, OVP,.Brekina VW T1 Samba PROIHOF, Südtirol Italien- limited - 1 87,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.EIDAI GRIP BRABHAM ALFA ROMEO BT45B - LAUDA No 7 - 1 43 - RARE SELTEN - GOOD,.RENAULT CLIO SUPER 1600 JORDAN DELEBECQUE RALLY LIMOUSIN 2002 UH 2267 1 43,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.Burago 1 18 Porsche 356B Cabriolet 1961 - Purple (3031),.CITROEN DS19 PRESIDENTIELLE Gal DE GAULLE 1 43,.Spot on Triang Morris 1100 hellblue mit Boot Zustand beschädigt, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.
White Box WB506 LAMBORGHINI DIABLO ROADSTER PredOTIPO 1992 MUSTARD 1 43 Modellin,.Ai604-0, 5 x Herpa Exclusive H0 Car Ferrari Testarossa + Porsche 911, NIP,.Fast & Furious Dom`s Plymouth GTX, Jada Car Model 1 3 2,.AUDI A5 COUPE I Phase 1 3.2 blue SCHUCO 1 43,.
Brekina 50709 - 1 87 Mb O 305 Stadtbus Playbig Aus Hamburg Td - Neu,.Majorette Serie 212 Dodge Depanneuse neu in OVP aus Lagerfund,.Motor City Classics - 1931 Ford Model A'' - Diecast 1 18 Scale,.H0 Herpa MB Atego Koffer Ladebordwand Polizei Neu OVP,.Wiking 1 87 H0 067448 LKW MAN TGS Euro 6 Meiller Kipper - orange - NEU OVP,.
1981 CORGI JUNIORS N.116 ESPANA 82 WORLD SOCCER CHAMPIONSHIP MERCEDES BUS,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.Corgi CC13210 1 50 Scale DAF XF Super Space Tractor Unit – Gibbs (MIB),.TINTIN HERGE 027 VOITURE DE white CASTAFIORE - SCEPTRE D'OTTOKAR - MINT IN BOX,.DECAL LAMBORGHINI LM002 ANDREA BARENGHI GRANADA DAKAR 1995 (08),Paul's Model Art 1 43 Minichamps Amphicar 1965 Red,.Herpa 309462 - 1 87 MAN TGS LX Rundmulden-Sattelzug Max Bögl - Neu,.
TOY STORY 4 HOT WHEELS Character Cars Set of 4 - Woody Buzz Lightyear Rex Alien,.Ford Hot Rod Modello Police Dept 29 Anno di Costruzione 1929 Scala 1 24,.BMC MINI COOPER S WINNER MONTE CARLO 1965 IXO RAC084 1 43,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:
I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.
2004 JADA HOMIE ROLLERZ '57 CHEVY BEL AIR blueE- 1 64 Luxury Diecast Car,.
TALBOT MATRA RANCHO REF 457 CORGI EN BOITE,. We agree in part.
Lot Vehicule Miniatures Renault 8 Gordini Et 2 Ch Charleston 1 24,.Corgi Classics 50th Anniversary Battle Of Britain Set D35 1 MIB,.
A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Original Audi TTRS 8J Roadster TT RS Modellauto 1 43 Nardogrey grey 5011610531,.OXFORD DIECAST 1 43 1950-1954 JOWETT JUPITER SA IN BRITISH RACING GREEN 43JUP001,.NEW 2823 Hot Wheels Collector Case For 30 Cars Toy Multi colord Hot Whe UK FAST,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Diapet 1 40 Scale SV-29 Nissan Cedric Ultima Creme Vintage diecast M BOX,.RENAULT MEGANE COUPE 2006 NOREV 517631 1 43,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Altaya 1 43 Scale Diecast AT0102 - 2012 Ferrari F12 Berlinetta - Red,; Lexus SC430 Cabriolet 2001- 1 43 - Minichamps,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.
Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:
That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .
GREENLIGHT – 1 43 –GMC – VANDURA CARGO G.SERIES VAN A-TEAM – 1983 Limited Edit.,.Minichamps 877065720 Porsche 904 GTS Baujahr 1965 in silvermetallic 1 87,OM45601 BMMO D9- Midland Red LTD 0375 5000,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Redline Hotwheels Red 1973 Short Order oc14940,.
Modellino FERRARI D50 GP D'Italia 1956 Brumm rif nr S024 scala 1 43,.
A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.FORD FOCUS WRC SAINZ SAFARI RALLY 2000 SKID SKM139 1 43,.Solido Ferrari 312 PB Le Mans - Red - A+ A MINT BOXED,.Coffret Alfa Roméo 156 (1998) 1 43 Solido,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, 1 43 Autoart VW New Beetle Cabrio (red),; Welly NEX 1 24 Scale 22411W - 1941 Chevrolet Special Deluxe - Cream,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, Pinko Fiat 500 Abarth Clienti Bianco in 1 43 Very rare model. Kit Assembled,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).
BRA14 814 WIKING GERMANY 750 STRABBENBAHN ANHANGER TRAM VETERAN HO 1 87,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:
That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:
(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;
(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;
(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;
(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;
(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.
HITCH & TOW SERIES 4 1968 CHEVY C-10 & CONCESSION TRAILER KRISPY KREME DOUDHNUTS,
COVERAGE E — PERSONAL LIABILITY
This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]
Lancia Delta S4 Stradale 1985 Red NOREV 1 43 NV785016,
This policy does not apply:
1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:
a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:
* * *
(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.
Corgi Toys 234 empty box for a Ford Consul Classic excellent all original,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.LGB 1 24 Scale Purple Dodge Charger V8 R T 2016 Welly Detailed Diecast Model Car,.DEUTRANS VEB Spedition blue DDR F 88 Hängerzug Pritsche Plane H0 1 87 UB4 å,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.WW2 1940 40 VW Volkswagen German Kubelwagen Type 82 1 64 Scale Limited Edition V,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.Matra Simca Bagheera 1974 Red 1 24 Model WB124021 WHITEBOX,.
SCHUCO 1 66 Nr.826 - VW-Porsche 914 S - mit BLISTER-OVP,.JENSON BUTTON 2011 JAPAN GP VICTORY FORMULA 1 1 43RD CAR MODEL TYPE Y0675J^^,.HONDA NSR500 LORIS CAPIROSSI 2002 MOTORBIKE MODEL 1 12TH NO65 DECAL ISSUE J5 (=),.Maserati 3500 Vignale Spyder 1960 bluee diecast modelcar in showcase 1 43,.
Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Lledo SP-6 Ford Model T Van Wimbledon FC bluee Football Crazy Gang Soccer Model,.
Redline Hotwheels bluee 1970 Paddy Wagon oc14129,.Cmk Canberra Pr Mk.9 Bomb Bay (Air) WWII 1 48 Modello Kit Airfix Bombenschacht,.Atlas Editions Dinky Toys - DS 19 Citroen - Maroon,.
The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, MOTO SUZUKI GSX-R 1000 blue 1 12 GSXR1000 2008,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.KAZ 608 MMZ-4502 AIST 1 43,.Casco Helmet Sebastian Vettel Gp Monaco World Champion F1 2010 Replica 1 8 Model,.MEBETOYS A-39 A39 A 39 LOTUS EUROPA METALLIC blueE EXCELLENT CONDITION,.2011 2012 BMW X6 M X6M DARK RED 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY BBURAGO 12081,.Lot of 35 NEW Hot Wheels Cars Vehicles First Editions 1999 2000 color Variations,.
Kibri Wiking H0 14069 L 6600 Kipper with Trailer, Green Red, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.Maisto 2015 Corvette Z06 Assembly Line 1 24 scale Model Kit,.B VINTAGE DINKY TOYS LOUDSPEAKER VAN,. The PartridgeEN VOITURE TINTIN N° 62 CAMION ALCAZAR LES PICAROS CHEVROLET 6400 + CERTIFICAT,.Vintage Matchbox Super kings Heli Hire Int. 1982 1975 made in England,.EFE 1 76 Scale 30303SB Routemaster Predotype RM2 London Transport,
Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]
Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, PEUGEOT 206CC PAredECH TUNING NOREV 1 43 YOKOHAMA new, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.MERCEDES 300 LANDAULET MODEL CAR 1 43 SCALE NOREV PRESIDENTIAL ADENAUER 1963 K8,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.IXO JAGUAR F-TYPE V8-S FIRESAND orange 1 43 JAGUAR DEALER BOX 50JDCAFTV8,.RENAULT TRAFIC POLICE municipale 2014 1 43,Partridge[First43 1 43] Nissan JUKE 2015 Azurite bluee F43-047,.Redline Hotwheels Sizzlers bluee 1970 Mustang Boss 302 oc16749,.
See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Minichamps 1 43 Jaguar XKR Roadster as driven by Zao - 'Die Another Day', (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Abrex Laurin & Klement Combi Body Van 1 43 143ABH902HG3,; MAZ 6312 bluee AIST 1 43,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, MCLAREN F1 GTR HEURES LE MANS 1998 ROURKE SUGDEN AUBERLEN IXO LMM110 1 43, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, CORGI 1 50 SCALE BEDFORD S LORRY LYONS Swiss rolls DELIVERY VAN DIECAST MODEL, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).
See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.
The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeVINTAGE 1971 CORGI 808 BASIL BRUSH'S CAR VEHICLE RARE,.
MASERATI MC12 MODEL CAR 35 ALMS 12H SEBRING 2005 1 43 SCALE IXO GTM044 BABINI K8,.Solido Militaire Armée 1 50 - GMC Citerne Le Roi Overlord 1989, Clarke's negligent act.Audi A6 Avant Quattro quarzgrey 1 43 AUTOart neu & OVP 50301,.ERTL 1 30 SCALE TEXACO WHITE 3000 TILT MODEL BN F950,.Solido 1 43 - Mercedes Unimog Rally TransAfrica,.
AUDI 100 LS VON SCHUCO - 1 66 MIT OVP, redpurpleT, NR. 817 -,.
The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, Corgi Diecast 2 Piece Set D94 1 - Bedford Box Van Ford Model T Van - Whitbread,Porsche 911 (996) Turbo Coupe 1999 Red 1 43 Minichamps,. In Noska, Herpa 289863 MB Actros LH 02 Curtain Canvas Cemitrailer Schmidt 1 87 HO Scale,.Minichamps 877060222 PORSCHE 911 (991) CARRERA S - 2011 - 1 87 NEU in OVP ,.IXO 1 72 - DDIJ00012 MARANE SAULNIER MS.406,.DECAL MITSUBISHI EVO VII GRUPO N DANI SORDO RALLYE CATALUÑA 2003 (08), necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.RARE Mercedes L 319 D 1962 Atlas 1 43,.Wonderful policecar AUSTIN J2 HEATHROW AIRPORT POLICE ,.7711147609 - RENAULT MAXI MEGANE - PRESENTACION 1 43,.1938 Mercedes-Benz G4 Congreenible, White - 43706 - 1 43 Scale Diecast Model Car,. Id., p 923.
AutoArt Mercedes-Benz CLK-DTM 2000 1 43 Darren Turner (GBR) (JS),.
In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, VINTAGE DINKY TOYS No.104 ASTON MARTIN DB3S SALMON PINK WITH RED HUBS & SEATS,Herpa MB Brabus C-Klasse CV8 W203 Nummer 000632 1 87 in PC und OVP (R2_3_57),.New German Siku Police Fire Air Rescue One Metro-Dade Helicopter 55,.DAF 95 Pr.pl. Roadtrain Spedition Wormser Herzogenaurach 1 87 Herpa 143301,.2007 Hot Wheels DC Daily Planet Delivery With Figure HTF,.Rietze Stadtbus Solaris Urbino 12 ‘14 MPK Krakow (PL) 73013,.NEW DINKY HERSHEY'S CHOCOLATE BAR 100TH ANNIVERSARY TRACTOR TRAILER,.CORGI 56503CC 1 43 SCALE LOTUS EVORA S 2009 - SOLAR YELLOW,. The parties EFE RF LONDON TRANSPORT GREEN ROUTE 322 WATFORD ACTON 2009 1 76 23319A,.
1 43 Minichamps Porsche 911 (991) Carrera 4 Coupe 2011 brownmetallic,.Promod AWD or Bedford TL Medium Box Van kit PRK030M,
Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.
* * *
In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.
The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that
"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."
Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, Ferrari 225S Spider Stradale 1952 Red Jolly Model 1 87 JLN87-038,; 2001 Gearbox 1 43 Diecast POLICE INTERCEPTOR CAR - WYOMING - Limited To 2500, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]
Siku SB 1 43 - Mercedes Binz Europ 1200 L,.
Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Ziss-Modell 1 43 Scale appx Diecast - ZS1B 1901 Mercedes Simplex,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)A.S.S WIKING ALTER BORGWARD MILCH VERKAUFSWAGEN 1963 GK 279 1 CS 424 1 1.W TOP,.Matchbox Moko Lesney Bedord bluee Dunlop Van No 25 and free replica box,.DIECAST 1 43 IST Models IST063 1960 WARSZAWA 201 Poland NIB DARK RED CAR MODEL,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,DELAGE D8S CABRIOLET 1932 CAPOTE ELIGOR 1004,
In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.
Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]
In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.Matchbox YS-43 Busch Self Propelled Fire Engine 905,.FERRARI MONDIAL 8 RED 60TH ANNIV 1 18 DIECAST MODEL CAR BY HOTWHEELS L7340,.MATCHBOX YESTERYEAR 1928 AUSTIN 7 VAN 7TH MICA EUROPEAN CONVENTION CODE 2 Y65,.Minichamps 1 43 Mercedes CLK Class Kabriolett Tansanit blue,.AUDI TT RS ROADSTER 2016 1 43 iSCALE (ARA blueE),. The ScottsdaleAF64-0,5x Wiking H0 Mercedes MB Lastzug 802 Shell+786 Hoyer, Jani, NEUW+OVP,Minichamps 1 43 - DTM 1995 Mercedes C-Class Team AMG J.v.Ommen Tabac,.LAMBORGHINI MIURA YELLOW SCALE 1 43 MINT CONDITION RARE,. Id.,CORGI TOYS D47 1 COFFRET MINNIE THE MINX,.
The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Norev Press Dakar 1 43 - Mitsubishi Pajero 1998,; Lancia Delta S4 Baujahr 1985 red red 1 43 Norev 785016 NEU OVP,Table game Nine tile New version Japan,.Brekina 58231 Neoplan NS 12, Bus _ elfenbein red _ H3781,. The ScottsdaleVintage Lesney Matchbox Volkswagen Camper No 34 England 1960's,Partridge but its application as well:
In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Majorette 212050014 - Creatix Playset Mit 1 Fahrzeug - Feuerwehr Station - Neu,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; CITROËN Type H BUTAGAZ Service 101478 Eligor 1 43 New in a box ,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, Microchamps 1 64 ALAIN PROST WILLIAMS RENAULT FW 15 MINT BOXED RARE ,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.
In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.
It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."
Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, MB - Models of YesterYear Y-13 Crossley 1918 RAF Tender,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).
There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Bburago Porsche Carrera 911 (1997) Diecast Model 1 18 Made in - Great,; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.
The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, TROF 43 Scale Diecast Model - 105 FORD SIERRA COSWORTH ROADCAR MAGENTA, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, JOHNNY LIGHTNING MUSCLE CARS USA RELEASE 1B SET OF 6 CARS 1 64 DIECAST JLMC001-B, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, STREET SWEEPER Matchbox 2002 Hero City Series Street Sweeper Cleaner 1 64 Scale,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]
Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeTank 15CM S.I.G.33 1 (SF) AUF GESCHÜTZWAGEN 38(T) New & box 1 43 diecast model,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, HTF MOC 2002 RACING CHAMPIONS ERTL THE DUKES OF HAZZARD BOSS HOGG'S CADILLAC,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuygheHannes Fischer 1 220 Scale Nr.804 Aerial Ladder - Boxed,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.1 32 1955 bluee White Oldsmobile Super 88 National Motor Museum Mint DIECAST,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.
In Huyghe,Ixo 1 43 Scale RAM490 - Ford Fista RS WRC - Monte Carlo 2012,Moko Lesney Matchbox No.40 Bedford 7 Ton Tipper – B2 box,.SUZUKI CAPPUCCINO 1991 Red 1 43 FIRST 43 MODELS KB NEW,.Faller Memory Cars W 111 Mercedes-Benz 220 SE Cabriolet 1961-65 (cremewhite),. The Huyghe1 18 Sun Star Porsche 911 (996) Carrera Coupe bluee NEW bei PREMIUM-MODELCARS,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheWinross TNT Red Star Express Ford CL9000 Cab 1 64 diecast,.
DODGE Chrysler Viper Competition Racing Cola UMBAU red red 1 43,.1 43 IXO Saleen S7-R car from 2001 24 Hours of LeMans LMM0033,.
Siku 3663 Jcb 435S Agri Radlader orange Scale 1 3 2 New °,.Ixo 1 43 Scale RAM394 Peugeot 207 S2000 Rally Finland 2009 Diecast Model Car,. Nonetheless, on the facts of Mercedes 1 24 kit montato l,.
Next, it is important to clarify that PartridgeBRUMM FIAT 1100E FURGONE 1956 COMMERCIAL MOBILGAS 1 43 R344 IN BOX,.LANCIA FLAMINIA COUPE 3B RED YORK 1964 STARLINE 517140 1 43 ITALIA red SOMBRE,.
For example, in Partridge,Johnny Lightning White Lightning Surf Rods Hang 10 Men with free predecto,. In Jorgensen, supra,Majorette Creatix Playmat (Motif Selection) Play Set with Toy Car from 3 J,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.2 LOT HOT WHEELS FAO black EXCLUSIVE CLASSIC 6-CAR COLLECTION & CD VW DRAG BUS,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,Die cast 1 24 Modellino Auto NSU Prinz 4L 1970,. That is the same situation in this case.Hot Wheels 25th Anniversary And Vintage Lot Of 6 carded Cars In Brown,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.Rolls Royce Corniche Conv Open Indigo bluee - Oxford Diecast 1 43 Model Car,. Detroit Edison, supra.
Porsche Boxster Cabriolet van Minichamps 1 43 in OVP 4208,.Universal Hobbies 1 43 Renault Laguna Estate face lift grey dealer edition,.Siku 1 87 Schwertransport mit Yacht Neu in der Ovp. (Lh1),.
Porsche 911 993 Carrera Coupe - Minichamps 1 43 in Box 34732,.