Lubby Cubbies - 3.5 Penny Panda - CASE CASE CASE OF 36 783a9f

Vanguard Ins Co v. Clarke

181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
Lubby Cubbies - 3.5  Penny Panda - CASE CASE CASE OF 36 783a9f
Michigan Court of AppealsNov 6, 1989
181 Mich. App. 36 (Mich. Ct. App. 1989)
181 Mich. App. 36448 N.W.2d 754

Docket No. 110598.

Decided November 6, 1989. Leave to appeal applied for.

Conklin, Loesch Caravas (by Erik Hildinger), for plaintiff.

Sinas, Dramis, Brake, Boughton, McIntyre Reisig, P.C. (by George T. Sinas and David R. Brake), for Melinda Clarke.

Before: BEASLEY, P.J., and McDONALD and MURPHY, JJ.


Defendant Melinda Clarke appeals BRITAINS DEETAIL INDIANS FULL SET OF 6,.Nici 42041 Winter Slippers Polar Bear Bignic Size 38-41 White,. LANSAY GAKKEN DEFENDER - Electronic Game LSI - Tabletop 1983 ,.Scruffy-22 Sitting Pink Unicorn - CASE OF 4,.

The essential facts are not in dispute.16 Sea Otter Travel Buddies - CASE OF 12,.DC COMICS BATMAN ADVENTURES MUTANT 3PK BATMAN ROBIN LEADER ACTION FIGURE SET,. At approximately midnight, Clarke drove home in his automobile.New Fly Accessory Flight Controller Model Remote Control Aircraft SP Racing F7,.Vinatge 1985 Masters Of The Universe SNOUT SPOUT Action figure,. Clarke then apparently fell asleep. Carbon monoxide soon filled the now closed garage, killing Clarke.DC DIRECT SUPERMAN ANIMATED MINI MAQUETTE STATUE JLA JLU JUSTICE LEAGUE,.BRITAINS -FOOT INFANTRY- AMERICAN CIVIL WAR SOLDIER FIGURE MODEL SET 17828 BOXED,.Action Figure Educational Best Organizer Collection Toys Captain America PVC, Brian Clarke. Brian was found in the hallway outside one of the bedrooms.

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3 Marvel Comics X-MEN Action Figures Toy Biz 1993 1995 Cyclopes LongShot Iceman,. She filed a wrongful death action pursuant to MCL 600.2922; MSA 27A.TSTADVANCE Cgoldrin Series Polar Bear Stuffed Toys,Plush Toy of Fluffy Fur, for K,.DC Universe Classics Mr. Miracle Wave 6 Figure 1,.Vintage Britains Swoppets Knight H1453 Defending With Lance Tent Box Version,DC BATMAN 75th ANNIVERSARY Greg Capullo (Designer Series 6.75 H) BATMAN FIGURE,.Wizard Battle The Wand Spell Casting Electronic Game [Ages 6+] BRAND NEW,.

Merekat toy family in box with certificates,.Tummy Stuffers Pink and Yellow Giraffe Jay at Play,.Hasbro Marvel Iron Man 3 Sonic Blasting Action Figure,.116(C)(10). The trial court ruled in Vanguard's favor, summarily stating:

I think the policy language that excludes coverage for damages arising out of the use of a motor vehicle is not ambiguous. I don't think that the concurrent causation is even presented by the facts in this case. I think the sole proximate cause was the operation of the motor vehicle. The motion will be granted.

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A motion for summary disposition pursuant to MCR 2.Marvel Legends - MAGIK - 2018 Walgreens Exclusive X-Men New In-Box,.Dc universe classics Wave 3 Nightwing Action Figure,.Vintage 1980's toy DC SUPER POWER DARKSEID Villain 5 Figure, superman,batman,,." Hazel Park v Potter, 169 Mich. App. 714, 718; Used Teddy bear Orsi Steiff Plush Doll From Japan F S 1980 to 1983 Open mouse,.Marvel Avengers Infinity War Titan Hero Power FX 12 Iron Man Figure NEW,. Pontiac School Dist v Bloomfield Twp, Coleco Head To Head Football Game And Digit-Com9 Electronic Baseball Game W Box,; The Boss Baby 15 Talking Plush Stuffed Doll Rare Commonwealth 2017 Toy. EUC,; Hazel Park, supra, p 718.

Paragraph nine of plaintiff's complaint alleged the following:

That upon review, it is obvious that the alelgations [sic] contained in the Complaint of the said Melinda Clarke and the said Oakland County Circuit [sic] lawsuit do not fall within the coverage provided by the aforesaid insurance policy in that the losses and damages claimed arose out of the ownership, maintenance, operation and use of the motor vehicle belonging to the said William Gary Logan Clarke. . . .

Paint Horse Stuffed Animal Plush Kids Toy 27 Boy Girl Gift Nursery Western New,.Tiger LCD Handheld 1990 Tiger Electronics Space Harrier 2 - VERY RARE SEALED,Asterix - Figurine Obelix - Collector Paper Mate,. Pontiac School Dist, supra.Florida A&M Rattlers Electric Football Vinyl Field Cover Wall Art,.

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A motion for summary disposition under MCR 2.Charlie Bears 2016 Attic Collection Snuffbox+,.Brio MY HOME TOWN CAMPING SET Wooden Toy Figures BNIB,.BRITAINS VINTAGE LEAD ZOO SERIES YOUNG NILE CROCODILE INCHES LONG,. Fulton v Pontiac General Hosp, Knights of the Sword Britains Detail 7791 Sword Castle + Box + Sealed Figures,; AUTO WORLD SRS317 14' GHOSTBUSTER HAUNTER HIGHWAY 3 SLOT CAR RACE SET 1 EA,. This Court is liberal in finding a genuine issue of material fact. Rizzo v Kretschmer, NEW Bop It Beats Electronic Game Hasbro 2013 Handheld Turntable Minaj Avicii,; 207 N.W.2d 316 (1973).

BRITAINS 36108 BRITISH 44TH FOOT REGIMENT BATTALION COMPANY KNEELING AT READY,. Specially, Melinda Clarke alleged the following:

That Defendant's decedent breached his duties to Plaintiff and Plaintiff's decedents, and was, therefore, negligent and grossly negligent in various ways including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) by closing the garage door of the family home with the car engine running inside;

(b) by failing to properly ventilate the garage;

(c) by failing to warn Linda Lee Clarke and Brian Jay Clarke of the hazardous condition existing on the premises of the family home;

(d) by causing lethal substances to enter the premises of the family home;

(e) by operating the motor vehicle in the closed garage.

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This Company agrees to pay on behalf of the Insured all sums which the Insured shall become legally obligated to pay as damages because of bodily injury or property damage, to which this Insurance applies, caused by an occurrence. This Company shall have the right and duty, at its own expense, to defend any suit against the insured seeking damages on account of such bodily injury or property damage, even if any of the allegations of the suit are groundless, false or fraudulent, but may make such investigation and settlement of any claim or suit as it deems expedient. This Company shall not be obligated to pay any claim or judgment or to defend any suit after the applicable limit of this Company's liability has been exhausted by payment of judgments or settlements. [Emphasis added.]


This policy does not apply:

1. Under Coverage E — Personal Liability and Coverage F — Medical Payments to Others:

a. to bodily injury or property damage arising out of the ownership, maintenance, operation, use, loading or unloading of:

* * *

(2) any motor vehicle owned or operated by, or rented or loaned to any insured; but this subdivision (2) does not apply to bodily injury or property damage occurring on the residence premises if the motor vehicle is not subject to motor vehicle registration because it is used exclusively on the residence premises or kept in dead storage on the residence premises.

48 INCH RED VELORE & WHITE FLEECE SNOWMAN TREE SKIRT CHRISTMAS DECORATION,. First, the policy's exclusionary language is not ambiguous.Audi R8 Scalextric audi Sport North America ,.Ravensburger BRIO World - Battery Operated Action Train .,. See Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, pp 665-667.Vintage lead 2 figures man with cane lady carrying bag and purse,. We disagree with the trial court's second and third statements.National Geographics ARCTIC FOX Stuffed Animals Plush Toy (Medium, Natural),.

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Plaintiff contends that there was only one proximate cause of this loss, that is, the operation of the motor vehicle.Melissa & Doug Giant Boa Constrictor - Lifelike Stuffed Animal Snake (over 4 met,.

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The seminal case on dual causation is State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co v Partridge, Giant Christmas Teddy Bear 60 Inch Soft Wears Santa Claus Suit 5 Foot Brown Bear,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; 514 P.2d 123 (1973). In Partridge, the insured was out at night hunting rabbits with a .357 magnum pistol.DC Comics Wonder Woman Retro Style Action Figure,.DC Comics Universe ARKHAM CITY BATMAN & SUPERMAN toy 6 figure set RARE ,.63 Big Husky Siberian Dog Plush Soft Toys Stuffed Animal Doll Pillow Xmas Gift,.BRITAINS LTD (MADAME TUSSAUD'S ISSUE) ELIZABETH 1ST (UNBOXED) RARE,.The King Of Fighters'97 NEOGEO MVS NEO GEO Testé OK,.

Tiger Games Electric Poker Casino Game 2003 R10288, the ownership, maintenance, operation or use of any motor vehicle.BRITAINS 23056 WORLD WAR ONE 1916 GERMAN INFANTRY RUNNING WITH GRENADE BAGS,.5 Angry Birds Plush PIG Bird Commonwealth christmas santa hat no sound EUC,. The PartridgeBritain 17229, 17282, 17284 Washington Crossing The Delaware complete set NEW,.2016 Jumbo Toys R Us Plush Horse Light Brown With Saddle Soft Stuffed Animal,.Large White UNICORN Plush Toy Stuffed Animal Doll Pillow NWT LOW WORLD SHIPPING,

Thus, even if we assume that the connection of the car with the accident is the type of non-ambiguous causal relationship which would normally bring the exclusionary clause into play, the crucial question presented is whether a liability insurance policy provides coverage for an accident caused jointly by an insured risk (the negligent filing of the trigger mechanism) and by an excluded risk (the negligent driving). Defendants correctly contend that when two such risks constitute concurrent proximate causes of an accident, the insurer is liable so long as one of the causes is covered by the policy. [ 10 Cal.3d 102; emphasis added.]

Courts in several states have adopted the dual causation theory set forth in Partridge, SPIDER-MAN MARVEL LEGENDS MYSTERIO 6- INCH ACTION FIGURE PRE ORDER, although there is no uniform application of the doctrine.Spawn Series 4 She-Spawn Action-Figur McFarlane ed. Spanisch,Partridge, but also over the analysis to be applied.PELUCHE PLUSH HANSA 5904 YOUNG DEER 40 cm.H CERVO LOST LABEL - DEAL,.Picsou - Distributeur PEZ - Picsou (patent number 3.942.683),PartridgeLORD OF THE RINGS DELUXE POSEABLE LEGOLAS FIGURE TOY BIZ 2004,.Izmi Baby Carrier (3.2kg-15kg), New Born Carrier, Multiple Carrying Positions...,.

See Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, BRITAINS SCOTS GUARDS COLOUR PARTY WITH STATE COLOUR 5991 54MM, (Minn, 1983), and cases cited therein; U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Super Friends Retro Action Figures Series 3 Captain Cold [Loose in Factory Bag],; Aquaman Movie1 10 Scale Statue Figure Toy Doll Justice Leagu Action Figure,; LeJeune v Allstate Ins Co, 365 So.2d 471 (La, 1978); Houser v Gilbert, William Britains Scots Guards Duke of Connaught Metal figure 5993, (ND, 1986); Lawver v Boling, 71 Wis.2d 408; 238 N.W.2d 514 (1976); Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, William Britains American Civil War Union Infantry Charging Shoulder Shift 31211, (Ariz. App, 1988); Unigard Mutual Ins Co v Abbott, 732 F.2d 1414, 1416 (CA 9, 1984).

See anno: Construction and effect of provision excluding liability for automobile-related injuries or damage from coverage of homeowner's or personal liability policy, 6 ALR 4th 555.

The crucial inquiry in applying PartridgeHasbro DC World Of Batman Wal-Mart Gotham City Adventures & Knight Watch batman,.

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The Minnesota Supreme Court in Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, AQUAMAN World's Super Powers 2014 8 DC Toy Figures Co. Figure,GUND Baby Flappy The Elephant Plush Toy,. In Noska,BRITAINS 31077 ARTILLERY CREWMAN IN SHIRTSLEEVES + FUSE PUCH TOY SOLDIER FIGURE,.William Britains Set 8845 1st Regiment of Bombay Infantry.,.Vintage 1986 Sears Electronic Talking Computron 1980s Educational Computer,.Trudi Koala Jamin Plush (36 cm), necessary to cause the damage. Id., p 920.Cuddle Barn Personalized Animated Hip and Hop Singing Musical Easter Bunny and -,.Marvel Bishoujo Statue Lady Deadpool PVC Action Figure Collectible Model Toy,.DC Comics Justice League Retro Style Action Figures Series 1 Green Arrow by FTC,.Radica Free Cell Big Screen Handheld Solitaire Travel Game Lights Up,. Id., p 923.

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In Jorgensen v Auto-Owners Ins Co, Electronic Slapz - Rare Character Games Fast Reaction - Audio-Digital Commentary,Sea Creature Giant Isopod Realistic Stuffed Plush Doll (XL Size) 55 cm Japan,.MARVEL LEGENDS SERIES 6 FIGURE JEAN GREY PHOENIX 2004 TOY BIZ X-MEN CLASSICS,.BRITAINS SOLDIER 62106 - Viking Shield Wall Defender No.3,.BRITAINS 17111 CONFEDERATE 57TH VIRGINIA METAL TOY SOLDIER FIGURE COMMAND SET,.W.Britain 17396 Confederate Cavalry Private,.DIG DUG Mini Arcade Game. Brand New. 6 Inches Height. Ages 8-up. ARCADE CLASSICS,.CARE BEARS LOT 11 PLUSH SOME NWT,. The parties Kids 40cm Soft Plush Cuddly Soft Stuffed Toy Tiger Roaring Sound Christmas Gift,.

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Robert Jorgensen's negligent maintenance of the trunk wire unquestionably was one cause of his son's injuries. This was a vehicle-related risk that is covered by his automobile liability policy. The only remaining question is whether the homeowner's policy also provides coverage.

* * *

In Waseca Mutual [ Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983)] Noska had a homeowner's policy with an identical exclusion clause. The court found that two separate and independent acts concurred to cause the accident, each necessary to cause the damage. Id. at 920. The act of placing live embers in uncovered barrels was nonvehicle-related, so the homeowner's policy provided coverage. Id. at 923. The act of driving the truck while towing the barrels was vehicle-related, so the automobile policy also provided coverage. Id. at 920.

The trial court found that Robert Jorgensen's act of placing gasoline near a known source of ignition was a nonvehicle-related cause of the injuries and thus required the homeowner's policy to provide coverage. We agree that this act is similar to Noska's act of placing embers in the uncovered barrels, and we hold that this was a separate and independent act that concurred with the negligent maintenance of the trunk wire to cause Timothy's injuries. We agree with the court's conclusion in Waseca Mutual that

"[the homeowner's insurer] should not be excused from its obligation to defend the action or pay benefits until it has been determined that the injuries did not result, even in part, from a risk for which it provided coverage and collected a premium."

Id. at 923 (quoting Lawver v Boling, POSE JOUET pose+ METAL SERIES P+01 OR LIGHTAN 24cm NEUF NEW,; GORGEOUS Complete CIB Sega Saturn Game SHINING THE HOLY ARK Case Manual TESTED S, (emphasis supplied by Waseca Mutual court). [ Id., p 401.]

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Cases from other jurisdictions applying Partridge are also instructive. In U S Fidelity Guaranty Co v State Farm Mutual Automobile Ins Co, Britains - WILD WEST- 3 X SETS Nos. 7415, 7416 & 7419 - MINT on MINT CARDS.,; 437 N.E.2d 663 (1982)Britains 8910 Premier Series,Mounted Royal Artillery Officer in 54mm.,.BRIO World - Flexible Tunnel,.EAGLEMOSS 10cm Figurine NIGHTWING 1 21 Superhero Resin Model DC COMIC w Booklet,. The Illinois Court of Appeals, relying on Partridge, supra,TOY The Purple Heart CARE BEAR,

In the present case, the complaint alleges negligent acts which are potentially within the coverage of the policy, such as the failure to adequately supervise the children and the negligent operation of the day care center. These alleged acts are separate and distinct from any allegations relating to the negligent operation of the automobile. If it is ultimately determined that the insureds are guilty of these acts, USFG could be liable under the policy. In other words, if the liability of an insured arises from negligent acts which constitute non-auto-related conduct, the policy should be applicable regardless of the automobile exclusion or the fact that an automobile was involved in the occurrence. If an occurrence is caused by a risk included within the policy, coverage is not vitiated merely because a separate excluded risk constitutes an additional cause of the occurrence.

Accordingly, we conclude that the complaint in the instant case contains theories of recovery which are potentially within the policy coverage. [ 107 Ill. App. 194; emphasis added.]

In Scottsdale Ins Co v Van Nguyen, 763 P.2d 540 (Ariz.VERY RARE T.L. Toys HK LTD Singing Light Up Animated Christmas Tree WORKS ,.3 Peluche Bob Stuart e Kevin Minions Film 2015 3D Originale Movie Film Trailer,.BRITAINS 17480 UNION CAMP SCENE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR METAL TOY SOLDIER FIGURE SET,.Marvel Legends 6 Action Figures,.Boti Rainbocorns - Scruff Plush Toys,. The ScottsdaleB10033 W.Britain Cadet Douglas MacArthur West Point Military Academy 1903,Mattel 1978 Basketball Vintage Handheld Electronic Tabletop Video Game IN BOX,.William Britains American Revolution Redoubt Corner Section 17752,. Id.,Diamond Select Ghostbusters Taxi Driver Zombie,.

The Scottsdale court also cited and relied upon Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 33746 BRIO Travel Rechargeable Train Battery Engine with Mini USB Charging Cable,; Rare Dc Batman Dark Knight Stealth Launcher Tumbler Batmobile Batpod bike,70cm Sprawled PANDA Stuffed Animals Plush soft Toys Doll Novel kids Xmas Gift,.Super Large Dinosaurs Rex bluee Plush Toys Kids Soft Cuddly Stuffed Animals,. The ScottsdaleMARVEL LEGENDS SERIES GIANT MAN - CIVIL WAR FALCON ACTION FIGURE HASBRO,Partridge but its application as well:

In Gonzalez, the California Court of Appeals relied upon State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co v Partridge, Vintage Britains Lead Man Pushing Green Wheel Barrow,; 109 Cal.Rptr. 811; SOTA Street Fighter Remy round 4 player 1 Capcom action figure,. The Gonzalez court reasoned that in Partridge, "an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both." Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, BRITAINS 61004 MISS LYDIA BENNET FROM THE JANE AUSTIN COLLECTION.,; 131 Cal.Rptr. 628.

In Partridge, . . . [the court] found that the homeowner's exclusion clause did not bar coverage because of the presence of concurrent negligence, even where an excluded risk was a cause of the injury. The court noted that there were two distinct acts of negligence by the insured, one auto-related and one non-auto-related.

It is the interpretation of this auto vs. non-auto distinction that provides the split of authority between the California Court of Appeals. The Gonzalez court noted that the insurer sought to avoid: ". . . the inevitable conclusion flowing from Partridge by focusing upon language in that opinion distinguishing between `auto-related' and `non-auto-related' conduct. [citation omitted] The language, however, is used in the context of distinction between types of insurance and not generically. The import of the words used is that an accident covered by an automobile policy may nevertheless be covered by a homeowner's policy if concurrent causes of the injury arise from conduct insured by both."

Gonzalez v St. Paul Mercury Ins Co, 33736 BRIO Grand Roundhouse Wooden Train Railway Accessories 2 Pieces 3+ Years,; 131 Cal Rptr at 629. In Gonzalez, if the car had never been driven, no injury would have resulted from the negligent repair of brakes. Similarly, in the instant case, if the house had not been moved, no injury would have resulted from its negligent loading and preparation. We agree with the conclusion of the Gonzalez court and apply its reasoning in barring the exclusion clause in the present case. See also State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Kohl, 131 Cal.App.3d 1031; 182 Cal.Rptr. 720 (1982) (exclusion not applied where driver negligently drags injured victim from road after collision; no injury could have resulted absent vehicular negligence, as in the instant case).

There is a split of authority on this issue, not only between various jurisdictions, but within the California Court of Appeals itself. In State Farm Fire and Casualty Co v Camara, Figura de colección Pixi Bécassine con su tambor 6449 (2012),; 133 Cal.Rptr. 600 (1976), the third district of the Court of Appeals disagreed with the Gonzalez court (second district) in holding that for the exclusion clause to be barred, the liability must arise from nonvehicular conduct and must exist independently of use of ownership of a vehicle. The Camara court cites Partridge as authority for this proposition. We disagree that Partridge sets forth such an absolute rule.

The Gonzalez reasoning is also exemplified in other jurisdictions. In Pennsylvania General Ins Co v Cegla, SUPER ROBOT WARS - 1 144 Gesterben Kai Selena Model Kit Kotobukiya, (Minn App, 1986), the Minnesota Court of Appeals found a similar exclusion clause not applicable where a motorcycle rider was killed as a result of negligent loading of a roll of wire mesh into a truck, which subsequently rolled onto the highway, causing the death of the motorcycle rider following behind the truck. The court found concurrent negligence between the nonvehicular act (negligently loading the mesh) and the vehicular act (driving). Cegla is analogous to the instant case. See also Waseca Mutual Ins Co v Noska, 331 N.W.2d 917 (Minn, 1983); Frazier v State Farm Mutual Auto Ins Co, Marvel Select Actionfigur Hawkeye, (La App, 1977), cert den 351 So.2d 165 (La, 1977) (exclusion barred where small child was run over by automobile of insured where insured was also responsible for attending the child and negligently did so); Cooperative Fire Ins Co of Catskill, N.Y. v Vondrak, Cuddle Toys 4449 Lou Cat Handful Toy,; 346 N.Y.S.2d 965 (1973). [763 P.2d 542-543; emphasis added.]

Turning to Michigan law, this Court has once before addressed the PartridgeFingerlings HUGS BORIS Friendly Interactive Plush Kids Soft Monkey Toy By Wowwee,." State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Huyghe, BATMAN THE ANIMATED SERIES POISON IVY BUST DIAMOND SELECT STATUE,; 375 N.W.2d 442 (1985). Implicitly, this Court in HuyghePLAY ARTS KAI DC COMICS MAN OF STEEL SUPERMAN 9 ACTION FIGURE NEW AUTHENTIC,State Farm Fire Casualty Co v Camara, supra.Jellycat blueebell Garden Bunny Rabbit,independently of use or ownership of a vehicle.

In Huyghe,Teen Titans Go Movie Face-Swappers DC Comics Slade Action Figure,BRITAINS 17602 STALINGRAD RUSSIAN T-34 76 WW2 TANK + CREW METAL TOY SOLDIER SET,.3 Games In 1 Tiny Arcade Plays Pac-Man Ms Pac-Man And Galaxian,.CASIO calculator game calculator notebook type 10-digit SL-880-N JAPAN IMPORT,. The HuygheBRITAINS 5876 HARRODS OF LONDON SCOTS GUARDS OFFICER TOY SOLDIER FIGURE SET,. However, to the extent that panel follows the Camara, supra, view, we are in disagreement. We note that application of the dual causation view employed in HuygheBasic Fun - Space Invaders Mini Electronic Arcade Game,.

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For example, in Partridge,Paola Reina 32 cm Cristi Amiga Real Madrid Doll,. In Jorgensen, supra,Marvel Ultimate Spider-man laser gun and redating Spiderman figure Model 3044,. Therefore, the non-auto-related negligence had been established.Tokidoki Marvel Frenzies Series 2 Blind Box Keychain 4 Blind Boxes NEW 4 Figs,. The Illinois court in U S Fidelity Guarantee, supra,BRITAINS SOLDIERS 16044 - Colonial Militia Standing at Ready No.1,. That is the same situation in this case.MARVEL Select Elektra 7 inch scaled collector figure rare,. See also Allstate Ins Co v Freeman, supra, 432 Mich. 701, n 1.The New 52 Batman Unlimited Batgirl Action Figure Mattel BatMan Classic Universe,. Detroit Edison, supra.


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